The Poster Session will be held on Monday, March 26, 2012 at 6:30 p.m. in the Dolan Atrium. Listed below are the poster presenters and their abstracts.

PS.01: “Neurocognitive Function in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Patients”
Lauren Brock, Melanie Panko, Dr. Mina Chung
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common irregular heart rhythm in the United States. Cardiac atrial catheter ablation has become a routine treatment for relieving AF. However, cardiac ablative therapy has been correlated with decreased neurocognitive function in patients treating AF.  In an ongoing study at the Cleveland Clinic, two cohorts of patients, those receiving ablative surgery and those receiving drug treatment, underwent a complete assessment of neurological status. The neurological function of the patients was assessed at the time of their treatment and again after 3 months using a battery of nine neuropsychological tests. For patients receiving catheter ablation, cerebral MRI was performed at baseline (up to 1 month before procedure), and 1–3 days and 3 months post-ablation. Preliminary research suggests that there is significant change in neurocognitive decline in patients who undergo ablative surgery for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

PS.02: “CD36-Na/K ATPas Signal Complex Mediates a Pro-inflammatory Signaling Loop in KIDNEYKidney”
David J. Kennedy, David J. Bartlett*,Zi-Jian Xie, Joseph I. Shapiro, and Roy L. Silverstein
Experimental and clinical evidence suggest pro-atherogenic, hyperlipidemic (HL) states are accompanied by increases in circulating ligands for scavenger receptor CD36 (e.g. oxLDL) and the signaling Na/K ATPase (e.g. ouabain-like cardiotonic steroids).  These factors increase inflammation, oxidative stress, and accelerate kidney fibrosis and progression of chronic kidney disease. We tested the hypothesis that ligands generated in HL accelerate renal inflammation through activation of a CD36-Na/K ATPase signaling complex, including potentiation of an inflammatory paracrine loop between proximal tubule (PT) cells and their associated macrophages.Cd36 null mice on an apoe null background were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32wks. Compared to wild type, Cd36 null kidneys had less glomerular and tubulointerstitial Mf accumulation, glomerular foam cell formation and mesangiolysis. The data presented data suggests a CD36-Na/K ATPase signaling complex in both PT and macrophages facilitates the development of chronic inflammation that underlies the fibrosis and renal dysfunction common to PA-HL states.

PS.03: “The utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging combined with measurement of plasma inflammatory markers as a means of determining obesity-related cardiovascular damage in adolescents”
Erin Nealon, Brandon  Schanbacher, Hong Huang, and John Bauer
Extreme obesity is strongly associated with premature morbidity and mortality, particularly as a cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have found that some obesity-related CVD is reversible in adults after weight loss surgery (WLS), but corresponding findings have not been demonstrated in extremely obese adolescents. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and measurement of inflammatory markers will be used to look at CVD before and after WLS in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to begin implementation of CMR as method for determining cardiac damage. Results for left ventricle (LV) mass were used to determine inter-observer variation and intra-observer variation, which were 6.16% and 2.40% respectively. These results indicate that the methods used are valid, supporting the use of CMR imaging. Additionally, preliminary blood tests from extremely obese adolescents indicated increased inflammation. There is a statistically significant difference in the preliminary data between obese adolescents and normal weight controls.

PS.04: “Therapeutic Potentials of Profilin-1 Phosphorylation-Targeting Peptide on Blood Vessel Formation after Ischemia”
*Emilee Ritchie, Undergraduate; Dr. Yi Fan, Cell Biology Department, Cleveland Clinic  Recent studies by Dr. Yi Fan have revealed a critical role of profilin-1 phosphorylation in vascular formation: profilin-1 phosphorylation in endothelial cells is dispensable in development but required for post-injury angiogenesis. Because of this, profilin-1 phosphorylation may be a great target for therapies that alter angiogenesis. Dr. Fan has designed a profilin-1 phosphorylation-targeting peptide that could potentially enhance blood vessel formation. This study will test the effectiveness of this peptide using immunoprecipitation and immunoblot, cell migration assay, and hind limb ischemia models in mice. If successful, this peptide could be the beginnings of a new treatment for coronary heart disease.

PS.05: “Hookworm”
Hookworm is a nematode that belongs to a group of parasitic worms called Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) which also includes Ascaris and whipworm. STHs are considered to be Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) because they affect so many people and are easily prevented. STHs are found in warm, humid climates and are prevalent where feces are used as fertilizer or where humans defecate outdoors. Most cases occur in rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and China. During the hookworm’s larval stage, it uses its jagged teeth to penetrate the skin of the host. The hookworm then enters the host and matures inside the host’s body. There are two species of hookworm that are found in humans, they are Ancylostoma duodenale (found in mainly Europe and the Mediterranean) and Necator americanus (found in North and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia).

PS.06: “Human African trypanosomiasis”
Michael Patrick Joseph Coughlin and Kevin Patrick Michael Carlin
Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness, is a trypanosomal parasitic disease transmitted by the tsetse fly. The incidence of the disease is around 70,000 cases per year with approximately 24,000 deaths per year occurring mainly in Western Africa. Pathogenesis is believed to be caused by the trypanosomes replicating in the blood and entering the brain. Currently, there is no vaccine for this disease, but it can be treated with three main drugs. Pentamidine is used for first stage infections while elfornithine and melarsoporol are used for second stage infections. This disease disproportionally affects Africans in impoverished rural areas, but prevention measures are underway. The goal is to reduce the number of tsetse flies thereby reducing the number of humans infected. The World Health Organization is working to decrease both the incidence and mortality of the disease in humans by making treatment and prevention measures more widespread.

PS.07: “Hepatitis C”
Mary Kate O’Malley, Kaitlin Skorvanek
Hepatitis C is a blood borne disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The origin and timing of its introduction into the human population are not known. The first sequences of Hepatitis C were reported in 1989. The virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and is primarily spread through direct contact with blood or bodily fluids of infected individuals. Hepatitis C can lead to chronic infections, which can cause cirrhosis of the liver, end stage liver disease and liver cancer. There is no vaccine against the Hepatitis C virus but there are successful treatment options available. About 180 million people in the world are currently infected and about 350,000 people die each year from the virus. Countries with high rates of infection are China, Egypt and Pakistan.

PS.08: “The Diatom Flora of the Soils of the Atacama Desert, Chile”
C. L. Vaccarino, L. M. Baldarelli, J. R. Johansen
The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest hot desert in the world.  We collected a total of 88 soils samples from a 1000 km long region of the Atacama as part of a study of the algal flora in soils of the Atacama Desert, and here report on the diatoms.  Only thirty-two of the samples had at least one green algal or cyanobacterial isolate; these samples were examined for diatom frustules.  49 different diatom taxa were recovered from the soils.  The clear soil inhabitants were Hantschia amphioxys, Luticola cohnii, L. goeppertiniana, L. mutica, L. nivalis, L. ventricosa, Pinnularia borealis, and Pinnularia subcapitata.  There were several other taxa reported from desert soils previously, including Epithemia adnata, Denticula valida, and Nitzschia valdecostata.  Planothidium lanceolatum, a generally aquatic taxon, was also fairly common.  A number of other aquatic taxa were present in rare numbers, and we suspect wind-blown transport for these species.

PS.09: “Trachoma”
Andrea Brown and Elise Baldarelli
Trachoma is a recurrent infection of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading cause of preventative blindness by an infectious organism worldwide. The infection causes the eyelashes to turn inward, scar the cornea, and eventually cause blindness. It is transmitted in an eye-to-eye manner by hands, contaminated clothing, droplets and eye seeking flies. Trachoma is endemic in about 56 countries, most of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. There are about six million cases of blinding trachoma yearly. It disproportionally affects children, women, and those in extremely poor, developing areas. The current efforts to prevent and treat trachoma are surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvements. This is the public health strategy, created by the World Health Organization known as SAFE, to eliminate trachoma by 2020.

PS.10: “The Role of Ceruloplasmin in Murine Models of Acute and Chronic Colitis”
Andrea Brown
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are commonly known as inflammatory bowel diseases. Ceruloplasmin is a glycoprotein that holds more than 95% of the copper found in the plasma of all vertebrate species. It is known that the plasma level of ceruloplasmin nearly doubles in response to inflammation, which indicates that it may have some type of protective effect. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of ceruloplasmin during intestinal inflammation, as related to Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Through this investigation it was found that mice lacking ceruloplasmin lost more weight and experienced greater inflammation than wild-type control mice following induction of chronic colitis. When acute colitis was induced, inflammation and weight loss were equal regardless of ceruloplasmin status.  Therefore, it appears as though ceruloplasmin is protective during chronic but not acute colitis.

PS.11: “Prevalent Medical Conditions in Adolescents and Children in Rural Honduras and Improved Treatment Methods from John Carroll Medical Brigades”
Emily Day
Proper health care in Honduras is highly expensive and available only to those financially capable of paying the high cost.  Approximately 30% of the population does not receive healthcare, and 83% are uninsured.  Those living in rural populations are excluded from receiving health services.  Through John Carroll University’s Center for Service and Social Action, a medical brigade traveled to rural Honduras and treated patients from Nuevo Paraíso, Flor Azul, and Quedabra Grande.  Patients were examined by Claudia Zuniga, a native Honduran physician, or Dr. Martin Schreiber of the Cleveland Clinic.  Patient information, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments were recorded and tabulated.  The purpose of this project is to use these data to provide a foundation for improved treatment methods for future John Carroll medical brigades to Honduras, and to provide possible public health recommendations.

PS.12: “Hansen’s Disease”
Lara Kollab, Michael Elias
Hansen’s disease, also known as leprosy, is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy is endemic in countries such as Brazil and in Southeast Asia, primarily in India. Eighty percent of cases in the Americas are from Brazil while 55% of all global cases come from India alone. In 2011, around 200,000 people were living with leprosy. It is transmitted through close, frequent contact with an infected individual through droplets from the nose and mouth. The eyes, skin, peripheral nerves, and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract are all affected. The World Health Organization is working to eliminate leprosy globally and in 1995, made combination drug treatment free to everyone in an effort to expand MDT to all health facilities. Other current goals of prevention are to make leprosy diagnosis available to all, train health workers to diagnose and treat leprosy, promote leprosy awareness, and encourage communities to seek and continue treatment.

PS.13: “Yellow Fever”
Mary AbdelMessih, Daniel Krajcik
Abstract: Yellow fever is a zoonotic, hemorrhagic disease that is transmitted by the bite of a female Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with yellow fever flavivirus. A flavivirus is a type of virus that integrates ssRNA into a host, which is then used for replication. This disease can be found primarily in the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa and South America. The incidence is 200,000 cases per year, with 30,000 of these cases resulting in death. Urban yellow fever is the most predominant of the yellow fever types, accounting for 90% of infections. Yellow fever infects liver cells and then spreads to other organs, which can result in death by shock or multi-organ failure. Currently, there is an effective vaccine that is administered in high endemic areas for prevention, but there has been no cure found for this disease.

PS.14: “Global Tobacco”
Boris Isakov & Kevin Jackson
There are an estimated one billion smokers in the world currently. Out of those one billion smokers 80% are from either low or middle income countries. Smoking is one of the greatest public health threats to people around the world killing an estimated 6 million people annually. The majority of the people dying from smoking are from developing countries, out of the people dying 72% are from either low or middle income countries. Smoking can be prevented in a variety of ways these include the usage of graphic picture on cigarette packages, banning of tobacco promotion, and the raising of cigarette prices through tax measures. If something is not done to reverse the trend smoking will become the number one killer of impoverished around the world by 2030.

PS.15: “Lead Poisoning”
Chris Charlillo
Lead is a toxic element that naturally occurs in the earth’s crust, which is dispersed into the environment mainly through human intervention. Lead has no biological function in humans, is non-biodegradable, and does not lose toxicity over time. This heavy metal can be found in air, soil, water, food, paint, gasoline, and lead containing products. Lead based paint was regularly used in the 20th century, thus a high risk of lead exposure occurs in homes, playgrounds, and schools painted before 1970 when the use of lead based paint was banned.  Lead based paint chips and accumulates as soil in homes and around playgrounds where children play. Ingestion is the major pathway in which lead enters the body, which makes children highly susceptible to lead poisoning as they tend to explore the world with their mouths. Once lead is in the bloodstream it travels throughout the brain, heart, and lungs.

PS.16: “Chagas Disease”
Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is an illness, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is found within an insect vector known as the triatome bug, specifically, the reduviid bug. This bug is found within many warm tropical climates of Central and South America as well as Mexico. The presence of the reduviid bug in these areas has led to the endemic of Chagas disease there. It is estimated that approximately 10 million people are infected with the T. cruzi parasite, most of which are in Latin America. Key tools to preventing Chagas disease include vector control, home improvements, and personal preventive measures. Insecticide spraying, bed nets, and installing plastered walls, cement floors, and stable roofs will help to prevent the infection of Chagas disease. Antitrypanosomal drug treatment has been shown to delay the progression of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications associated with Chagas disease.

PS.17: “Prostate Cancer Secretome Analysis”
Amanda Alzayed
Tumor microenvironments contain a variety of secretomes that have been identified as potentially key components in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Here I used a series of eight proteins that were released by both the tumor cells and the host cells to identify any potential linkage between the stage of cancer and the level of protein being released by the cells. The protein levels were measured by ELISA using plasma samples from prostate cancer patients taken pre- and three months post-tumor removal. I found that OPN had the strongest association with tumor stage because levels of OPN were much higher in patients with stage 3 prostate cancer rather than stage 2 prostate cancer. CXCL2 showed a similar trend to OPN, but with a less dramatic difference. I also found that levels of Tpo were much higher in patients with stage 2 prostate cancer rather than stage 3 prostate cancer.

PS.18: “Effects of Iron Metabolism on Immune Response”
*Ian Bailey, undergraduate student; *Jen Ludgin, postbaccalaureate student; Dr. Erin E. Johnson, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, John Carroll University
Ferroportin (FPN) is an iron transport protein that functions to export iron from macrophages. The stability of FPN is reliant on the peptide hormone hepcidin, which specifically targets the degradation of FPN. Disruption of the hepcidin-FPN axis adversely affects iron metabolism and can lead to hemochromatosis. Previous work has shown that over-expression of FPN diminishes NO production by the enzyme iNOS in murine macrophages. There are currently nearly 30 known human FPN mutations. The focus of this project is to characterize the response of the FPN variants through over-expression and knock out models, in order to elucidate the role of FPN in combating bacterial infection.

PS.19: “Identifying the Regulating Factors in the Expression of the Selenoproteome”
*Ian Bailey, undergraduate student, John Carroll University; Angela Miniard, Lead Technologist; Dr. Donna M. Driscoll; Staff member, Cell Biology Department of the Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic
Selenium is an essential trace element, which is incorporated into selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). The synthesis of Sec is dependent on the recoding of the UGA stop codon. This translational reprogramming is directed by the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) located in the 3’ untranslated region of the mRNA, which acts as a platform for possible regulating factors. The expression of the selenoproteome seems to be regulated by certain factors in this pathway, preserving expression of essential selenoproteins when selenium is limiting. Liver SBP2 knockout mouse models and tissues from mice on differing selenium diets were studied to further understand the in vivo roles SBP2 and selenium levels play in the expression of the selenoproteome. The western results from the selenium-diet mice and the liver SBP2 knockout mice seem to confirm that selenium levels and SBP2 levels impact the expression of the selenoproteome in vivo.

PS.20: “A gene study of PSF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells”
Michael Sypert, Smarajit Bandyopadhyay, and Paul E. DiCorleto
​Earlier studies from this laboratory have identified polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)-associated splicing factor (PSF) as an interacting protein of the homeobox transcription factor HOXA9 in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC). An essential target gene of HOXA9 action is the EC-leukocyte adhesion molecule E-selectin, which is induced by cytokines. PSF participates in many cellular functions, including both DNA unwinding and annealing, and transcriptional regulation. Here, we began investigation of PSF and its involvement in the induction of E-selectin in EC. We have determined that PSF is arginine methylated in EC, and has a half-life of approximately 3 hours within the cell. Currently, work is in progress to identify the significance of PSF knockdown within EC, and whether methylation plays an important role in the regulation of E-selectin induction in EC.

PS.21: “Effects of Silencing SRB-1 Receptors on Cancer Cells”
Daniel Krajcik, Joseph DiDonato Ph.D, Stanley Hazen M.D., Ph.D
Scavenger receptor B-1(SRB-1) is found on all cells especially liver cells and cancer cells.  SRB-1 is used to uptake cholesterol from high density lipoprotein (HDL) into either the liver for elimination from the body or to the cancer cell where the cholesterol is used to fortify new cell membranes in the dividing cancer cell. The goal of the experiment is to silence this receptor with high efficiency and examine resulting growth effects on mouse melanoma B16 cancer cells.  To create a high efficiency silencing plasmid, three different silencing DNA clones for SRB-1 (shDNAs) were combined as overlapping tripartite U6 promoter-driven shDNA cassettes using a complimentary overlapping DNA cloning system (In-Fusion, Clontech Laboratories) into a single plasmid backbone which expresses a fluorescent fusion protein (Venus-Puro) which provides puromycin antibiotic resistance for stable clone selection. Stable clones are grown but not analyzed yet.   Funded by an NIH grant to Dr. Stanley Hazen.

PS.22: “Dominant negative activity of the cytosolic domain of TNF receptor-II in TNF-mediated gene induction”
Katherine Lyons, Undergraduate, John Carroll University; Unni M Chandrasekharan, PhD and Paul E DiCorleto, PhD
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) elicits its biological activities via the activation of TNF receptor-I (p55) and TNF receptor-II (p75). Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that p75 is critical for TNF induction of E-selectin in endothelial cells (EC). Recently, we have identified that cytosolic domain of p75 (Dp75) competes with the endogenous p75 for a signaling adaptor protein. Aim of this project was to determine if Dp75 function as a dominant negative molecule in TNF-mediated gene induction. To address this question, we cloned the Dp75 fragment in a mammalian expression plasmid. Using transient transfection followed by immunoblot analysis we demonstrated Dp75 expression in EC. In a co-transfection experiment we showed that Dp75 down-regulated TNF-mediated transcriptional activity of E-selectin promoter. To further confirm, we will employ immunohistochemistry approaches and determine if TNF induction of endogenous E-selectin is compromised in Dp75 expressing cells.

PS.23: “Comparison of Transcription using Short Single, Double, and Snapback DNA Templates”
Stephanie Clack, Oksana Kozlovskaya, Michael P. Martin, and David P. Mascotti
Standard in vitro transcription assays use templates that are made of linear, double-stranded DNA. In this study we used novel templates that possessed a double-stranded promoter for T7 RNA polymerase recruitment, but the remainder of each DNA construct contained three different downstream variations. The control template utilized a linear, completely double-stranded DNA template. This was compared to two templates of the same length where one template strand was self-complementary and formed a hairpin (snapback), whereas the other strand possessed no self-complementary and remained single-stranded. All three templates produced RNA that was similar in length. We compared the kinetics of transcription at different temperatures in order to determine if there is preferential transcription of the three DNA variations at each temperature.

PS.24: “Interactions of Human Superoxide Dismutase 2 with RNA”
Elizabeth Lewis, Ryan Schoonmaker, David P. Mascotti
To corroborate and extend earlier findings that human superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) has the ability to bind to DNA, we used fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor the interaction of SOD2 with RNA. The tryptophan residues in free SOD2 fluoresce strongly when free, but are quenched upon binding RNA. The extent of quenching is proportional to the amount of RNA that is bound, thus we can derive binding affinities from these titrations. We have measured the affinity of SOD2 for poly(U) and poly(A) at different temperatures to determine if enthalpy contributes to the binding affinity. We anticipate determining whether SOD2 exhibits fluorescence quenching upon binding single- and double-stranded DNA as well as the salt dependence of SOD2 binding to RNA and DNA.

PS.25: “Effects of Buffer, pH, and Antioxidants on the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid”
Jill N. Habursky and Michael A. Nichols
Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals (HO∙ or ∙O-O∙) abstract a hydrogen atom from a lipid.  When peroxidation occurs, the lipid breaks down into smaller molecules that can lead to cell death and has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases and cancers, including Alzheimer’s disease and atherosclerosis.  In this research project, linoleic acid was oxidized using oxygen gas and the inhibition of the oxidation process was studied by comparing various antioxidants.  When linoleic acid is oxidized in the presence of oxygen gas a variety of oxidation products including 2,4-decadienal, 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE), and 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE) are produced and these can be detected and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  After the optimum reaction conditions (buffer, pH, and total reaction time) were determined, varying concentrations of the lipid soluble (vitamin E and carotene) and water soluble (vitamin C and resveratrol) antioxidants were added and their relative potencies were determined.

PS.26: “Monitoring Constructed Wetlands’ Ability to Remediate Stormwater Runoff”
Kathryn D. Welch and Michael A. Nichols
This project focuses on the constructed wetland that is located at the beginning of Nine Mile Creek in Cuyahoga County. Previously, this wetland was a drainage basin consisting of a shallow, concrete channel prone to flooding during heavy storms. In 2008, the retention basin was converted to a constructed wetland to provide natural habitat, store large quantities of storm rainfall, and remediate storm water runoff. Over a four week period, water samples were collected from both the inflow and outflow points of the wetland. These samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical species including common cations (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and anions (Cl, F, SO4) and those classified as nutrients (NO2, NO3, NH4 and total P) and the physical properties of pH and conductivity.  In this poster presentation, the results of the effectiveness of this newly constructed wetland will be presented.

PS.27: “Aggregation Phenomenon  of Acetylacetone”
Sarah Tyler
Acetylacetone (2,4-pentanedione, acac) exhibits tautomeric equilibrium, but at low temperatures in certain solvents this equilibrium constant deviates from the expected temperature dependence. It is possible that this deviation is caused by the formation of dimers or higher aggregates of acac. In order to study this possible aggregation, ligand-exchange reaction kinetics experiments and molecular dynamics simulations can be used. Complexes are formed using chromium (III) and primary alcohols, which are then reacted with acac at several different temperatures in order to look for changes in the kinetic parameters compared to those observed for the thermodynamics of tautomeric equilibrium.To monitor the kinetics, uv-vis spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy were used. The nmr spectra allows one to see the changes in structure when a ligand binds to the paramagnetic chromium(III) center; this information can then be used to evaluate the accuracy of the interatomic potential used for molecular dynamics work.

PS.28: “Development of a Spectrofluorimetric Assay for Copper using 8-Aminoquinoline and 2-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde”
Alescia Synder and Michael A. Nichols
8-[(2-Pyridine)-methylideneamino]quinoline (PMAQ) is a ligand that has been reported to be prepared from 8-aminoquinoline and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde and has been used in a spectrofluorimetric assay of copper in aqueous solutions.  We have revisited this assay to determine whether an equimolar mixture of the individual components, 8-aminoquinoline and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, in pure methanol will yield similar results.  This “Pre-PMAQ” solution’s fluorescence decreases when titrated with aliquots of a standard copper (II) solution.  However, the relationship between intensity of florescence and volume of copper solution titrated is not linear.  This poster presentation will outline the assay developed and the data analysis procedures that must be used.  The assay’s applicability to other metals, such as cobalt, iron and zinc will also be shown.

PS.29: “Design of a 3-D Radio Frequency Laminar-Constructed Hexapole Ion Trap”
Matthew Schott
Most ion traps currently used in mass spectrometry are Paul-type quadrupole traps. In this design there are two hyperbolic “end cap” electrodes pointing towards each other with a hyperbolic ring electrode in between these end cap electrodes. Shortcomings of the quadrupole design include an inability to cool the ions below about 300 Kelvin due to heating from the radio frequency and an insensitivity of trapping with respect to the ion’s energy. These shortcomings limit the use of ion traps in certain experiments. We are interested in generalizations of the quadrupole ion trap.  The hexapole ion trap consists of six total electrodes and two end cap electrodes, with the foci still pointing towards one central point. Using the traditional method of construction of a Paul trap, increasing the number of electrodes becomes increasingly difficult to machine.

PS.30: “The Effect of Job Type on Satisfaction in Domains of Life”
Jonathan Hatgas, Undergraduate; Jerry Kiffer, M.A., Executive Health Department, Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Data from 7,760 patients in Executive Health was examined to see if one’s career type had an effect on satisfaction across life domains. The Spreadsheet of Life and Responsibilities (SOLAR) self-report scale was used to gather data. Patients were asked to think about their satisfaction in 15 life domains over the past year. They rated satisfaction on an 11-point scale (0= total dissatisfaction, 5= average satisfaction, 10= maximum satisfaction). The results show that, overall, the retired and spouse/homemaker groups had higher satisfaction across domains.

PS.31: “Service and Development: A Look at the Effects of the Arrupe Scholars Program”
Jonathan Hatgas
Service learning has become part of the college experience of many students.  Resulting research suggests higher college retention and graduation rates, deeper commitments to civic life, and more refined development of personal and social responsibility.  This study examines students’ experiences in service as a context for psychosocial development across four domains: care, competence, citizenship, and commitment.  Participants included students and alumni from the Arrupe Scholars Program and students from the broader John Carroll University community.  Participants completed a survey of service experiences covering the four developmental domains, service history, and basic demographic information.  Additionally, archival data from the Arrupe program was analyzed to examine change in students’ perceptions of social justice, poverty, and solidarity over the period of the program. Preliminary results indicate a significant difference between Arrupe Scholars and non-Arrupe Scholars with respect to individual developmental domains.  Findings from analyses on changes in program participants are on-going

PS.32: “Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity and Reversal of Circadian Rhythms on Food Intake, Activity, and Metabolism in Male Long-Evans Rats”
Samantha Mossman
Obesity in America has risen sharply in the past three decades. Maintenance of the balance between diet and activity depends upon the body’s naturally occurring circadian rhythm, a pattern of rest and activity for most systems. When this pattern is disrupted, as seen in those on shift work schedules, many systems cannot adjust and debilitating effects are seen in body weight, food intake, adiposity, activity, and metabolism. Utilizing a rodent model, the present experiment sought to understand the effects of a high-fat diet and circadian de-synchronization on body weight, food intake, adiposity, activity, and metabolism. Results indicate that a high-fat diet and circadian misalignment lead to significant disruptive changes in the variables examined. These changes mimic those observed in humans working on shift work schedules.

PS.33: “Effects of Strattera, a Non-Stimulant ADHD Medication, on Spatial Learning and Memory in Long-Evans Rats”
*Carolyn Rudy, Undergraduate; Drs. Murphy & Wideman, Faculty Advisors; Neuroscience Program, John Carroll University
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 8% of American children. In recent years, Strattera, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) has gained popularity for the treatment of this disorder. As with all ADHD medications, Strattera is subject to non-prescribed use by adolescents and college students seeking a competitive edge for studying.  However, most students do not continue use of the medication during the test which may result in state-dependent memory deficits. To be consistent with other SNRIs, it was hypothesized that Strattera would not produce state-dependent memory effects. The Morris Water Maze was used to assess spatial learning and memory in Long-Evans rats. There were no significant differences between how well the control and experimental groups learned to complete the Morris Water Maze and both groups performed equally well on the memory trial when the drug was no longer administered.  Findings suggest that Strattera does not produce state-dependent memory effects.

PS.34: “Increased Neural Activation in Presymptomatic Huntington’s Disease During a Time Discrimination Task”
*Scott Marek, Undergraduate; Drs. Murphy & Wideman, Faculty Advisors; Neuroscience Program, John Carroll University; Dr. Rao, Cleveland Clinic
Huntington’s disease (HD) has been linked to degeneration of multiple brain regions before manifestation of physical symptoms. Of these regions, the basal ganglia have been shown to encode time intervals, while other areas, including the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), have been implicated in maintaining time intervals. It was hypothesized that gene-positive individuals would experience increased neural activation compared to controls to compensate for existing atrophy. Using fMRI, participants completed a time-discrimination task to evaluate changes in brain activation between healthy (n=32) and diseased participants (n=60). Significant increases in brain activation in the diseased group were noted compared to the healthy group in the SMA, right insula, right thalamus, and left IPL. No significant differences were observed between groups in the basal ganglia.  Results indicate that fMRI can be used as a biomarker for identifying neural effects of HD before motor symptoms become manifest.

PS.35: “Effects of a Varying pH in Ambient Humid Air on the Electrical Properties of Indium Nitride”
Brian Washburne, Undergraduate; Dr. Jeffery Dyck, Advisor, John Carroll University; Dr. Kathy Kash, Case Western Reserve University
Indium nitride (InN) is a semiconductor with a bandgap that makes it a material of interest for visible light emitting technologies. The surface of InN has properties that confuse attempts to characterize the intrinsic electric properties of the material. The pH in the unavoidable water layer on the surface of InN can affect the exchange of electrons between the water layer and the surface of InN, this alters the electrical properties of InN. With a goal of further clarifying our understanding of this exchange of electrons, resistance measurements of InN were taken under the influence of three different levels of pH in the ambient humid air. An InN sample was contained in the presence of solutions of a low, neutral, and high pH. There were measurable changes in resistance with changes in pH. Initial changes in resistance were in agreement with predictions. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation.

PS.36: “Opioid and Habituating Sedative Resumption after Chronic Pain Rehabilitation: A Link to Addiction?”
Allison Gase, Kelly Huffman, PhD, Giries Sweis, PsyD, Tracy Masterson, PhD
Approximately four to six million people suffer from comorbid chronic pain and addiction. Opioid and habituating sedative resumption was analyzed at six and twelve months after completion of the interdisciplinary Cleveland Clinic Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program. The program incorporated weaning patients off of opiates and habituating sedatives. Based on patient chemical dependency diagnosis, patient outcome data including pain, mood (depression and anxiety), and function were analyzed at admission, six months after discharge, and twelve months after discharge. Results did not support study hypotheses that patients with comorbid chemical dependency diagnosis would be more likely to resume opiates and habituating sedatives post discharge from CPRP at either six or twelve months. However, at six and twelve months, depression was significantly higher for those with a history of chemical dependency. Results suggest that the experience of pain has not only physical, but also psychological manifestations.

PS.37: “Low Blue Light Devices Developed to Improve Sleep and Health”
Edward F. Carome, PhD; Vilnis Kubulins, MS; Richard L. Hansler, PhD
Medical researchers discovered early in this century that it is not all light but mainly blue light that suppresses melatonin production by the pineal gland. Soon thereafter it was also established that blue-light-blocking goggle wearers could function normally after dark but produce melatonin just as if they were in darkness. As lighting developers we immediately took advantage of these medical discoveries by developing lamps coated to block the blue portion of the spectrum, i.e., below about 530 nanometers. We also developed blue-light blocking eyewear, including fit-over types. Thus, for more than five years we have been providing a variety of so called lowbluelight devices, e.g., incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps, LED nightlights and flash lights, eyewear, and filters for TV, computer and iPad screens.

PS.38: “The Value of Protocols for Criminal Evidence”
Alyssa Perrin
This study’s objective is to show the value of protocols in the criminal justice system by using an example of the collection and preservation of evidence to achieve justice in the legal system. The collection and preservation of evidence protocol is given in a flow chart to depict the necessary steps law enforcement must take to collect and protect valuable evidence to be used in a criminal court case. Without the gathering and maintenance of evidence, there is no way to prove a defendant innocent or guilty; the entire criminal justice system relies upon these protocols for the proper collection and preservation of evidence to try to remove all reasonable doubt so that justice may be served.

PS.39: “Berlusconi & the Media: A Political Response to the 2009 Abruzzo, Italy Earthquake”
Jake Winfield
On April 6 2009, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck in L’Aquila, Italy – the capital of the Abruzzo region – killing 308 people, leaving 67,500 homeless and damaging over 60,000 buildings seriously. Survivors were moved immediately into tents or to hotels on the coast by the Italian government.  Long term housing issues were addressed by building permanent seismic proof housing in just six months, costing over €1.6 billion. Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi led these initiatives, in part to gain positive attention from the media.  This politicized action also included a media campaign, turning the tragedy into a media spectacle.  The role of the media in this post-disaster scenario is still being exposed as more government documents become available, but it is clear that Berlusconi had political motivations for his actions in L’Aquila.

PS.40: “Identifying effective models of domestic violence/ anger management prevention and intervention in the 21st century.”
Adrienne N. Chinni, M.A.
This project will examine the Duluth model and Steven Stosny’s Compassion Workshop model of batterers’ intervention. Through an extensive literature search, models of intervention will be compared and contrasted and the Duluth model, historically the most prevalent model of treatment, will be examined for its relevance in today’s society of GLBT partnerships and rising rates of female offenders. Additionally, traditional forms of anger management will be evaluated as they are also frequently used as treatment for domestic violence offenders. Brain science in recent years has shed light on the tremendous impact that a history of trauma can have on impulse control, emotional regulation, and other areas of brain development and functioning. As part of this project, treatment models and methods of intervention for batterers’ will be considered in light of the damaging effects that trauma, which is common among perpetrators, has been shown to have on the brain and behavior.

PS.41: “First-Generation Students & John Carroll University”
Brian Fitts
As we shift from a manufacturing-based to a more technologically-driven society and economy, the demand for college-educated workers is becoming more commonplace. Because of this, more college students are becoming the first from their family to attend college and pursue a four-year degree. Research has indicated that first-generation college freshmen tend to face more stress and adjustment issues compared to their second and third-generation counterparts. The present study sought to assess how effective John Carroll University is at easing the stress and adjustment issues faced by first-generation college freshmen. Students enrolled in AR 120 were given an 8 question survey assessing, among other things, their current levels of stress & self-esteem. Results indicated that current first-generation students at John Carroll University do not experience the same levels of stress found at other, larger universities. Further work must be done to determine why this is the case.

PS.42: “Religion and Medical Literature during the Age of Reason”
Adam Boggs
The purpose of my research will be to investigate two principal ideas of medical literature: 1) how medicine became unaffiliated with religion and 2) how this separation reveals itself in published works of medicine. The practice of health care dates back to the ancient Greeks, and was deeply rooted in their polytheistic faith. This affiliation lasted for nearly two thousand years until the Enlightenment swept across Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. English medical literature shows that faith and health care walked hand-in-hand for nearly all of history prior to the Age of Reason, separating only a few hundred years ago. In my project, I will examine these records and use them to display the shift in medical policy away from religion and towards empirical data, logic, and reason. Specifically, I will demonstrate how this change was apparent in the English medical literature surrounding this crucial time period.

PS.43: “Customized Subject Guides”
Nevin Mayer, Associate Librarian, Grasselli Library and Breen Learning Center
Did you know that your department’s library liaison is available to help design a customized subject guide for your courses? Subject guides bring together for your students key subscription databases, free web resources, and print resources with their location links onto one convenient page. This poster session will present an example of a guide created for a course on Chaucer, offered in Spring 2011. Some data will also be presented. These data suggest that this course-specific guide was highly used by the students in the course and that the students generally found it helpful in their research efforts.

PS.44: “My eLife”
Jon Koslo, Dan Mizener, Courtney Rowan, Becca Sirk, Graduate Students
Background: For MK 558, New Product Development, we are learning about understanding the market’s needs and developing a solution for a select market. Our group surveyed the local students at JCU and concluded that “Time Management” was a major issue. As a result, we developed a product concept that is an “interactive software” that allows students to maintain organization, while maximizing efficiency. This product concept is an online tool that compiles personal calendars, school calendars, together and would allow group sharing. For example, a student athlete would be able to share his / her calendar with a professor. Although there are similar products available, the differentiating factor is our “one tool is able to rule them all” – meaning, that email, calendars, Facebook news feeds, are all in one easy location for students to maximize their efficiency.

PS.45: “The Perfect Night”
Joe Bauer, Dani Evers, Billy Hope, Graduate Students
A night out gives you the opportunity to put all the stress and chaos of your day to day life aside, even if for only a short time. What if there was a service that ensured all the intangibles that you look for in a night out were met?  Whether you are tired of the same scene in your hometown or unfamiliar with the nightlife in a new place that you are visiting, DineorDrink gives you the resources to plan the perfect night out. Don’t leave your night to chance anymore, take advantage of DineorDrink’s unique ability to help customize your night into the perfect escape from the rigors of your daily life.

PS.46: “Campus Qwest”
Caitlin Sykes, Ramon Catania, Tom Everette
As part of the Boler School of Business’ New Product Development course, our project team has developed Campus Qwest, a mobile application that offers a 360 degree virtual tour of college campuses around the nation. Campus Qwest also offers way-finding solutions for both prospective and current students alike. We will present the new market development process, beginning with idea generation, through marketplace introduction, and finally overall management of the product line. Ray, Caitlin, and Tom have assumed the role of product managers and will provide an in-depth look at Campus Qwest’s marketing strategy in order to pitch a concept that can be a viable and profitable future product offering.

PS.47: “You Pick My Food, I Deport You: Migrant Farm Workers in the U.S”
*Alejandro Velez (Senior, Spanish/Sociology), Dr.Megan Thornton (Department of Spanish), Dr.Gloria Vaquera (Department of Sociology & Criminology)
The U.S has had a long history of seeking workers from foreign countries, one of the most popular being Mexico and Central America. Today there are thousands of documented and undocumented migrant farmworkers who pick many of the fruits and vegetables the U.S consumes. The courses “Hispanic Immigration in Film, Music, and Literature” (Dr.Thornton) and “Latino/a Transnational Experience” (Dr.Vaquera) will be used to better explain and expose the realities that many farm workers endure. The case study of Immokalee, FL will be used to exemplify social justice issues currently occurring in the tomato picking industry.

PS.48: “The Conflict Between the Catholic Church’s Teachings on Premarital Sex and the Behaviors of Students”
*Emily Herfel, Undergraduate; Dr. Donald Cozzens, Writer in Residence, Department of Theology and Religious Studies, John Carroll University
Stemming from the sexual revolution of the 1960s, many Christian college students have found themselves fighting an internal battle between Catholic teaching on sexuality and the current campus hook-up culture. Inspired by a number of national research projects on current campus sexual mores and behaviors, a micro-level research study was completed on volunteer students at John Carroll University. This on-campus project addressed in particular how young practicing Catholics deal with the disconnect between their sexual behaviors and the Catholic Church’s teachings on sex and sexuality.  A total of 250 JCU students responded to my survey answering questions such as: Do the young adult Catholics feel guilty about casual hook-ups? The aim was to explore the nature and depth of the disconnect between the teachings of the Catholic Church on sexuality and the actions of its practicing members. Results were analyzed and presented, along with personal theological and philosophical conclusions.

PS.49: “Support for Women’s Rights in the Middle East”
Laura Kisthardt, Undergraduate
This paper aims to discover the determinants of public support of women’s rights in the Middle East through looking at comparisons of gender, education, religion, religiosity and time spent in Western countries. It is important to look at women’s rights in the Middle East because in some places in the Middle East the treatment of and attitudes towards women qualify as human rights violations. If we can figure out what factors make an individual more accepting of women’s rights, then we can act to improve those factors, for example increased education or positive messages in religion. Previous research had not connected evaluations of women’s rights with public opinion in the Middle East. This research found strong evidence that women are more likely than men to support women’s rights and that Muslims are less likely than non-Muslims to support women’s rights.