Graduate Study and College Teaching

The academic qualification for most positions in college teaching is possession of the master’s or doctor’s degree. Teacher certification is not required. The doctorate often is also the avenue to a career in research, education, or industry as well as to various executive responsibilities in management.

Usually the master’s degree requires at least one year of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s degree. The doctorate requires at least three additional years. Graduate study presupposes fundamental preparation in a special field as well as supplementary skills in foreign or computer language or statistics that should be acquired in the undergraduate program.

Students contemplating graduate study should become familiar with conventional procedures, the comparative merits of various institutions, and the availability of financial assistance. Faculties and graduate schools tend to have particular strengths in special fields, with corresponding prestige for their graduates. Fellowships, assistantships, and other types of appointments often are available to students who require financial assistance. Information is available at the University or public library, on the Internet, in graduate school bulletins, the annual Directory of Graduate Programs published by the Educational Testing Service, and the annual Peterson’s Guide to Graduate and Professional Programs. Early in senior year students should contact selected graduate schools to obtain applications for admission, financial aid, and other information. Most graduate schools now have online applications.

Early and sustained consultation with John Carroll faculty will be most helpful in planning graduate study. Faculty may assist in submitting applications for admission to graduate study or graduate appointments. Credentials commonly must be submitted in the late fall and early spring, and selections are usually announced in mid-spring.

Undergraduate preparation generally requires a full major in the chosen field. Quality of achievement as evidenced by grades is an important index to probable success in graduate study. Undergraduate transcripts are required and examined by the graduate school for both admission and appointments. Another common expectation is good performance on an examination, which should be taken as early in the senior year as necessary to submit test scores by the date designated by each graduate school. Students must determine whether a particular graduate school requires the Graduate Record Examination General (Aptitude) Test or Subject (Advanced) Test or both. Other tests such as the GMAT or the Miller Analogies Test may also be required. Information about testing dates and locations may be obtained at the College of Arts and Sciences website:

Students must take the initiative in seeking advice and obtaining application forms, meeting requirements, and enlisting recommendations. The dean and the faculty of the major department, however, are ready to assist in any reasonable way to provide endorsements warranted by the student’s ability and achievement.

Professional Programs

Professions such as law, medicine, dentistry, and engineering ordinarily have two phases of schooling: preprofessional and professional. John Carroll cooperates with the students’ preprofessional schooling by offering programs of two, three, or four years’ length. Although there is increasing preference within professions for candidates who have completed baccalaureate programs, students with exceptional academic records and personal development may enter some professional schools such as dentistry or optometry after two or three years of preprofessional education. Students are urged in most cases to pursue programs leading to a bachelor’s degree.

Health Professions

Students pursuing full four-year degree programs as premedical or predental preparation normally earn the Bachelor of Science degree with a major in either biology, chemistry, or physics, but they are free to follow any degree program provided they complete the specific premedical or predental requirements.

Students should familiarize themselves with the general admission requirements of the profession which they aspire to enter in addition to those specific to the schools of their choice. The director of the Pre-Health Professions Program is available for individual advising. In addition, meetings are usually held each year to provide information for each class level. Faculty advisors in the biological and physical sciences are also available to act in an educational and advising capacity. Students are encouraged to avail themselves of these resources and to consult the Pre-Health Professions Program website ( for more information.

The Health Professions Advisory Committee is the University agent which recommends students to medical, dental, and other healthcare professional schools that require or prefer recommendation letters from a committee rather than individual faculty members. The committee’s letters are based on academic performance and factors such as integrity, industry, maturity, and judgment.

Post-baccalaureate students who have not received their undergraduate degree from John Carroll may use the Health Professions Advisory Committee as the source of their letter of recommendation if they so choose. Normally such students should have completed 24 semester hours of course work at John Carroll, which may include the semester in which they interview before the committee.

Current admission practices of health professional schools suggest student qualifications considerably higher than the minimum C average required for graduation. Therefore, normally a letter of evaluation will be written to these schools only for applicants who have attained a minimum grade-point average of 3.0 overall and 3.0 in science courses (biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics).


The requirements of medical schools are summarized in Admission Requirements of American Medical Colleges, published annually by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Additional information can be found at the Association of American Medical Colleges website ( Applicants for medical school must take the Medical College Admission Test. Since this test is usually taken in late spring of the junior year, premedical students should have completed or be completing the basic requirements for medical school by that time. Those requirements are generally one year each of general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, and biology, with labs, and one year of college-level math. They are usually fulfilled at John Carroll by taking CH 141-144 and 221-224; PH 125, 125L, 126, and 126L; BL 155-158; and MT 135-136 (MT 228 may be substituted for MT 136). A bachelor’s degree is almost invariably required.

Graduate and Professional Study

John Carroll participates in the MEDStart Program for pre-medical students, an early-decision program for first-semester juniors offered by the University of Toledo College of Medicine. Details are available on the John Carroll website ( or from the director of the Pre-Health Professions Program.

John Carroll participates in two programs of interest to pre-nursing students, the Case Western Reserve University Graduate Entry Nursing Program and the Ursuline College Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program. More information on these programs can be found on pages 141-142 in the Biology section of this bulletin or from the director of the Pre-Health Professions Programs.

John Carroll also offers a Premedical Post-Baccalaureate Program designed for students who want to fulfill the requirements for admission to medical school, dental school, and other health professional schools. This program is appropriate for students 1) who possess a bachelor’s degree in a discipline other than biology or chemistry and wish to pursue a health professions career, 2) who majored in chemistry or biology but struggled with the coursework as a traditional undergraduate, or 3) who have not been enrolled in courses in these disciplines for over five years. More details are available in the Graduate Studies Bulletin and at the website


The Council on Dental Education of the American Dental Association lists the minimum educational requirements for admission to a dental school as follows: (1) Students must successfully complete two full years of study in an accredited liberal arts college. (2) In most states, the basic requirements of predental education are the same as those of premedical education noted above. Those requirements are generally one year each of general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, biology, and math. They are usually fulfilled at John Carroll by taking CH 141-144 and 221-224; PH 125, 125L, 126, 126L; BL 155-158; and MT 135-136 (MT 228 may be substituted for MT 136). (3) Students must complete a minimum of 64 credit hours from liberal or general education courses, such as English, communications, behavioral sciences, philosophy, and religious studies, which give breadth to their educational background. Applicants must take the Dental Aptitude Test. This test is usually administered in late spring of the junior year, by which time the basic predental requirements should be completed. Admission to schools of dentistry with only two or three years of undergraduate education is the exception rather than the rule.

In addition to medicine and dentistry, there are a number of other careers available in healthcare delivery. Students are encouraged to explore such fields as podiatry, physical therapy, occupational therapy, nursing, optometry, veterinary medicine, physician assistant, and pharmacy. Most of these occupations require a baccalaureate degree with additional education at the graduate level. Information and advising are available from the coordinator of Pre-Health Professions Studies.


A pre-pharmacy advisor is available to assist students interested in applying to pharmacy graduate programs. For further information, please see Dr. David Mascotti, Department of Chemistry ( He can help guide curriculum choices, graduate program selections, and career opportunities in pharmacy.

Most pre-pharmacy students will follow a course of study that begins with fundamentals of chemistry and biology. Most graduate programs also require students to take the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT). Admission requirements differ for various graduate programs; therefore, specific advanced courses will be determined based on the graduate program to which the student intends to apply. These programs are very competitive and rigorous in nature, and thus require a high academic standing and PCAT score for consideration.


A pre-law advisor is available to guide students interested in pursuing the study of law upon graduation. For further information, please see Dr. Elizabeth Swenson, Department of Psychology (

Any major can be a suitable preparation for a career in law, especially when combined with carefully chosen courses outside the major field. Students interested in law school are especially urged to consider double majors, a minor, or a concentration that complements the major field of study.

A broad background of knowledge, which is obtained through the University Core Curriculum in the Liberal Arts plus a major in a specific field are required for the study of law. In addition, certain skills are important in learning and practicing law. These skills include the ability to speak and write effectively, to organize and absorb large amounts of information, to read carefully and critically, to analyze and evaluate complex issues, and to deal with problems creatively. Also important is knowledge of the social, political, and economic structure of society and an understanding of the human values of this structure.

The pre-law advisor can also give advice on admission to law schools, the choice of a career in the legal profession, and on the construction and content of a personal statement. In addition to the undergraduate degree, law schools require students to take the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and to apply through the Credential Assembly Service (CAS). Forms for both of these are available at

Admission to law school is based on high academic standing, a correspondingly high LSAT score, and recommendations from faculty and others familiar with the applicant’s character, academic preparation, and aptitude for law school. Extracurricular activities, work experience, and special achievements also play a role.

Ohio CPA Certificate

Certified public accountants should have a broad background of both liberal and professional education. The experience of Boler School alumni indicates that the major in accountancy provides excellent preparation for the Ohio CPA examination.

The certificate is granted by the State Board of Accountancy in accordance with the Ohio Revised Code. The current educational requirement for the CPA certificate is graduation with a baccalaureate or higher degree that includes successful completion of 150 semester hours of college-level credit or the satisfaction of alternate prequalification options. In addition to 30 hours of accountancy, candidates must complete course work in such areas as ethics, business communications, economics, finance, marketing, quantitative applications, and business law. Students should discuss the available options with a member of the Department of Accountancy.

In addition to this educational requirement, candidates for the CPA certificate must (a) pass a written examination in accounting, auditing, and in other related subjects; and (b) have public accounting experiences satisfactory to the board.

Students who wish to prepare for CPA certificates awarded by states other than Ohio should discuss their situation and academic programs with members of the Department of Accountancy.

Teacher Education

Students who seek to obtain a teaching license after graduating with a baccalaureate degree will find that many colleges and universities, including John Carroll University, offer teacher licensure programs at the graduate level either as post-baccalaureate licensure-only programs or as Masters of Education licensure programs. Four licenses are available in the state of Ohio: Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Adolescent Young Adult, and Multi-Age. To earn these licenses, students take a professional education sequence of courses which includes a student teaching experience. For the Middle Childhood, Adolescent Young Adult, and Multi-Age licenses, there may also be additional course work in the teaching fields depending on the baccalaureate degree (see description of requirements in this Bulletin, page 194.

John Carroll offers four graduate-level options for earning teacher licensure: the School-Based M.Ed. Program, the Professional Teacher/Initial Licensure Program, and the Post-baccalaureate Program. The School-Based Program is an eleven-month full-time accelerated program that results in a master’s degree and licensure. The Professional Teacher program also results in a master’s degree and licensure, and can be completed either on a full-time or part-time basis. The Post-baccalaureate program can be completed either on a full-time or part-time basis and results only in a teaching license. The Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship Program is designed to attract talented and committed individuals with backgrounds in the STEM fields—science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—into teaching in high-need secondary schools. This one-year program will offer prospective teachers rigorous disciplinary and pedagogical preparation with extensive clinical experience resulting in a master’s degree and teacher licensure. Participants will receive a $30,000 fellowship.

Graduate programs are also offered in the fields of school counseling, school psychology, and clinical mental health counseling. These programs lead to a master’s degree and licensure. All of John Carroll University’s licensure programs are accredited by NCATE and CACREP and conform to current Ohio licensure standards.

The detailed organization of the graduate licensure programs and information on licensure requirements can be found in the Graduate Studies Bulletin under the Department of Education and Allied Studies and Counselor Education.

Engineering Programs

John Carroll University has articulation agreements with Case Western Reserve University and with the University of Detroit Mercy that ensure students interested in pursuing an engineering degree a smooth transition to these schools. The Case School of Engineering offers degrees in biomedical, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, mechanics and aerospace, and systems control engineering, as well as in macromolecular science and material science. Students interested in the 3-2 binary program with Case Western Reserve University attend John Carroll for three years and then transfer to CWRU for two years; they receive both a B.S. from John Carroll and a B.S. in engineering from CWRU. The program is open to any student who completes the pre-requisite courses (in calculus, physics, chemistry, computer science) and maintains an overall 3.0 GPA and a 3.0 GPA in science and mathematics courses.

The University of Detroit Mercy offers engineering degrees in architectural, civil, electrical (with an optional concentration in computer engineering), and mechanical engineering. Their engineering programs include a co-op component which provides students with work experience and allows them to earn a significant income. Under the engineering articulation agreement with UDM, students complete a two-year pre-engineering program at John Carroll and then transfer to UDM for two years of engineering. They receive a Bachelor of Engineering degree from UDM.

Another option is to complete a B.S. at John Carroll and then enter an engineering school for a master’s degree in a particular field of engineering. Students who choose this option may start taking engineering courses while at John Carroll through the Northeast Ohio Commission on Higher Education Cross-Registration Program.

Students interested in the above programs should contact the Department of Chemistry or the Department of Physics as early as possible.