Professors: D. A. Dukes, S. O. Long, P. B. Harris (Chair); Associate Professors: K. N. Eslinger, R. D. Clark, E. M. DeZolt, W. A. Wiedenhoft-Murphy, G. S. Vaquera; Assistant Professor: M. W. Barnes

Sociology is a broad discipline that includes the study of human interaction as well as the analysis of underlying social structure. Thus sociology students study social human behavior, in particular, the way people interact, organize, and take action. The discipline provides students with a strong analytical and theoretical background and skills to work with and understand people. The substantive areas covered within the Sociology and Criminology Department include aging, anthropology, crime and deviance, cultural diversity, the environment, forensics, the family, health and illness, human service/social justice, poverty and social inequality, prejudice and discrimination, population and public health, and sex and gender. The Department of Sociology and Criminology offers regular course work in all of these areas.

Many students participate in internships in nonprofit and governmental agencies. Graduates have gone into many careers: law and criminal justice, social work and counseling, population and public health, nonprofit administration, education, and business, as well as sociology and anthropology.

Major and Minor Requirements


Major in Sociology and Criminology:
36 credit hours. SC 101, 201, 400, 460, 460L are required. At least 18 hours must be at the 300 or 400 level. MT 122 is also required of Sociology and Criminology majors and is a prerequisite for SC 460 and 460L. At least 21 hours in the major must be taken at John Carroll University.

Comprehensive Examination: All sociology majors are required to pass the Major Field Achievement Test in Sociology as a condition for graduation. This should be taken in the spring of senior year. Details of the examination are available from the department chair.

Minor in Sociology and Criminology: 21 credit hours. SC 101, 201, 400 are required, and four other sociology courses of the student’s choice.

It may be desirable to construct the minor in a way that enables completion of one of the tracks or areas defined within the Sociology and Criminology Department. Students constructing a sociology and criminology minor are encouraged to select courses that complement their chosen major. See the department chair for further details.

Major and Minor

Sociology and Criminology majors may elect to focus their study in one or more of the areas of expertise (tracks) represented in the department. Depth of knowledge can be obtained by taking a larger portion of course work within one of these areas. Such focus, however, is not required, and students may elect to take a variety of courses in the field, as a broad education in sociology can be obtained in this manner.

SC 101 is usually taken in the freshman year and is a prerequisite to many 200-, 300-, and 400-level courses. Upper-division courses are advanced courses and should ordinarily be taken during junior and senior years. At the time that students declare their major, all who intend to declare Sociology and Criminology must make application to the department and meet with the department chair. Applicants will be expected to have an overall quality-point GPA of 2.5 to be accepted as Sociology and Criminology majors.

Specialized Tracks in Sociology and Criminology

Sociology and Criminology majors or minors may elect to focus attention on one of three specialized tracks in sociology. Fulfillment of the tracks requires that all requirements and options within the tracks be successfully completed. In some cases, the requirements for a track may exceed the requirements for the sociology and criminology minor.

The Criminology trackis recommended for students interested in crime, forensics, law, police work, and justice. Internships are available to seniors in their spring semester, and students will be matched to an internship site based on their career interests. Seniors interested in an internship should notify the department in September of their senior year. Track requirements are 18-19 credit hours. The track consists of five tiers of courses. Tier I: Introductory Courses (Select 1) – SC 230 or 240; Tier II: Special Topics in Criminology (Select 1) – SC 220, 265, or 275; Tier III: Additional Sociology Courses (Select 1) – SC 215, 225, 330, or 360; Tier IV: Advanced Topics in Criminology (Select 1) – SC 340, 343, 345, or 365; and Tier V: Summary Courses in Criminology (Select 2) – SC 435, 440, or 475. All tiers must be completed to fulfill the requirements of this track.

The Cultural Diversity trackpromotes an appreciation of the variety of ways humans live and prepares students for an increasingly interdependent world. It is recommended for students considering a career in a multicultural setting or graduate study in comparative sociology, ethnic studies, international studies, anthropology, law, counseling, or social work. Internships are available to seniors in their spring semester, and students will be matched to an internship site based on their career interests. Students interested in an internship should notify the department in September of their senior year. The track requires a total of 18 credit hours. Students must take either SC 245 or 255 as their foundational course in the diversity sequence and one course that will deepen their knowledge of a particular culture or world area (SC 151, 250, 253, 353, or another course approved by the department chair). Additionally, students must select four other courses from the following list: SC 151, 245, 250, 253, 255, 315, 320, 330, 353, 355, 370, 390, 455, 475, 490, or CO 390.

The Human Service, Health, and Social Justice track is recommended for students interested in counseling, social work, law, advocacy, population and public health, public policy, public administration, nonprofit administration, and other related careers. Internships are required of seniors during their spring semester, and students will be matched to an internship site based on their career interests. Students needing an internship should notify the department in September of their senior year. The track requires a total of 20 credit hours, consisting of SC 111, 385, 475, 490, and at least two of the following: SC 225, 230, 255, 273, 275, 285, 290, 295, 300, 315, 320, 330, 340, 370, 380, or 390.

Please consult the department chair about questions and details regarding the tracks.

Interdisciplinary Minors and Concentrations

Sociology and Criminology majors and minors may also participate in a number of interdisciplinary minors and concentrations, such as: 1) Aging Studies; 2) East Asian Studies; 3) Environmental Studies; 4) Perspectives on Sex and Gender; 5) Latin American Studies; 6) Entrepreneurship; 7) Catholic Studies; 8 ) Peace, Justice, and Human Rights; 9) Population and Public Health; and 10) Forensic Behavioral Science. For details about interdisciplinary minors and concentrations, see pages 82-89 of this Bulletin and consult the respective coordinators.

Core Curriculum Requirements and the Writing-Intensive Course in Sociology and Criminology

The content of sociology courses contributes strongly to students’ education through the Core Curriculum. The field of sociology initiated much of the early research on diversity, and most Sociology and Criminology courses reflect a continuing emphasis on that topic. The department also offers numerous international courses as an important part of its curriculum. The emphasis on scholarly writing is reflected in course content, and students will find that the schedule of classes for a given semester reflects these emphases. For students taking SC 101 or SC 245 as a Core requirement, it is recommended that the course be taken at John Carroll.

It should be noted that the writing requirement of the Core Curriculum must be fulfilled by Sociology and Criminology majors through completion of a writing-intensive course in the department. Students will find appropriate sociology courses marked with a “W” in the course schedule, designating it as a writing-intensive course.

Academic Study-Abroad Opportunities for Sociology and Criminology Students

The Sociology and Criminology Department encourages its students to engage the world through a number of academic study-abroad opportunities:

1) interdisciplinary courses abroad offered in the summer by department faculty with other John Carroll faculty: SC 235 (Popular Culture in Japan); SC 393 (Peace and Conflict Transformation in Northern Ireland); and SC 399A (Restoring a Nation: Post-Conflict Transformation in South Africa); or 2) study-abroad programs coordinated by the University’s Center for Global Education.

Community Service and Social Justice in the Sociology and Criminology Curriculum

The Sociology and Criminology Department is committed to social justice and community service with a faculty and curriculum oriented to provide such opportunities for students. The department provides preparation for service and promotes understanding of various issues related to social justice through SC 111, 255, 273, 300, 330, 385, 380, 475, and many other courses. It cooperates with other University offices in placing students for volunteer service. See the department chair for full details.

Student Awards

See page 48.

Graduate Programs

Many graduates of the Sociology and Criminology Department have undertaken graduate study in sociology and a variety of related fields, such as anthropology, law, social work, counseling, public health, public policy, and nonprofit administration. The department encourages the intellectual development which makes graduate work possible. The department also assists in graduate school application procedures. For more information, students should consult an academic advisor in the department.

The department is also a founding member and a participating department in the Master of Arts in Nonprofit Administration at John Carroll. The Nonprofit Administration program is intended for those who desire careers managing nonprofit organizations that provide assistance to people in need. It is an interdisciplinary professional degree program housed in the social sciences. Faculty from ten different departments of the University, including the Boler School of Business, offer course work in the program.

A special agreement with the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences (M-SASS) at Case Western Reserve University enables qualified Sociology and Criminology majors to enroll in the M-SASS program after their junior year at John Carroll. Successful completion of this two-year program results in a B.A. in sociology from John Carroll and a Master’s in Social Work from Case Western Reserve University. For details, including standards for eligibility, consult the chair of the Sociology and Criminology Department during the freshman year.

101. INTRODUCTORY SOCIOLOGY 3 cr. Survey of human social relations, diversity, and societal social structure; introduction to the major divisions of the field of sociology.

111. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL JUSTICE 3 cr. Overview of the theories of social justice, including discussion and analyses of social inequalities both domestic and global, and issues related to civic engagement, social responsibility, and change. Service learning component required.

151. CULTURES OF EAST ASIA 3 cr. Introduction to the cultures of China, Korea, and Japan. Focuses on national variations among cultural heritages vastly different from the Western tradition.

199. SPECIAL STUDIES 1-3 cr. Variety of courses with special focus; subjects will be announced in the course schedule.

201. SOCIAL PROBLEMS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Survey of modern problems using frames of reference and concepts introduced in SC 101. Topics include crime and deviance, delinquency, health care, mental health, sex-related social problems, divorce and the family, poverty, discrimination, population and environmental problems.

215. INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Introduction to sociological social psychology theories and concepts concerning the relationship between the individual and society. Topics include the process of socialization, the development of one’s sense of self, how individuals are affected by groups and group processes, and the symbolic nature of human interaction.

220. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Overview of the American system of criminal justice as an integrated process with focus on procedures and functions or system components, including law, police, prosecution, court, and corrections.

223. FORENSICS: OVERVIEW OF CRIME SCENE ANALYSIS 3 cr. Introduction to the practice of crime scene investigation and the field of forensic science. Students will learn about types of physical evidence, crime scene documentation, procedures, and subsequent scientific analyses.

225. SOCIOLOGY OF THE FAMILY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Examination of the institution of the family, with an emphasis on its changing nature in U.S. society. Topics include family structure and diversity, interaction within families, analysis of courtship and marriage patterns, intersections between work and family, parenting, and family policy.

230. DEVIANT BEHAVIOR 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Causes and effects of violating social norms; inadequate socialization, labeling, and the relationship between individual and society; role of social control.

240. CRIMINOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Survey of sociological data and theories pertinent to the types and incidence of crime in America.

245. INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY 3 cr. Study of the diversity of human lifeways that have existed historically and in the contemporary world, viewed in a framework of biological and cultural evolution.

250. JAPANESE SOCIETY 3 cr. Study of Japan as a postindustrial society, focusing on social relationships, institutions, and contemporary issues.

253. JAPANESE POPULAR CULTURE 3 cr. Study of contemporary Japanese material culture and lifestyles in the context of an affluent, commercialized society. (Cross-listed as HS 283 and IC 220.)

254. CHINESE SOCIETY 3 cr. Focus on contemporary Chinese society in light of the rapid political, economic, and cultural changes of the past century. Topics include family, work, and the development of civil society, emphasizing the diversity of social experience by social class, ethnicity, and gender.

255. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Study of prejudice and discrimination, including their history, contemporary sources, and prospects for their reduction, with application to U.S. institutions. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the social construction of difference and the experiences of stigmatized statuses, as they relate to sex and gender, race/ethnicity, sexuality, class, and disability.

265. VICTIMS OF CRIME 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Special problems faced by victims of crime; crime prevention; post-crime trauma.

273. PUBLIC HEALTH IN U.S. SOCIETY 3 cr. Introduces basic concepts of public health and explores major public health issues in the United States. Central focus on health disparities regarding who becomes ill and inequalities of access to treatment due to stereotypes, racism, and social class.

275. FAMILY VIOLENCE 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Social causes of violence in the family, especially dynamics of child and spouse abuse. Review of current research with attention to measures for preventing family violence and treating its effects.

285. AGING, HEALTH, AND SOCIETY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Interdisciplinary overview of aging with special attention to the impact on the individual, family, and society. Experiential learning and review of current research findings with emphasis on successful aging and health promotion.

290. ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIOLOGY 3 cr. Critical examination of the relationship between society and nature, particularly how humans have attempted to dominate nature throughout history. Topics include consumption, food and agriculture, population growth, and renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. Concludes with exploring solutions to stop environmental degradation.

295. SOCIOLOGY OF DEATH AND DYING 3 cr. Death and dying from a life-cycle perspective, including pain, grief, bereavement, and widowhood.

299. SPECIAL TOPICS 1-3 cr. Specialized focus on selected areas and issues in sociology.

300. DEATH PENALTY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Interdisciplinary team-taught class on the sociological and philosophical beliefs underlying support for the death penalty, nationally and internationally. History of executions; legal changes in the death penalty process; public opinion; deterrence; living and working on death row; and human rights concerns.

315. SEXUALITY AND SOCIETY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Social scientific examination of human sexuality, including biological, social, cultural, and psychological aspects throughout the life course. Topics include sexual identity, expression, and variation; sources of beliefs and attitudes about sexuality; the influence of changing gender roles and norms; and the social, psychological, and health consequences of sexual behaviors.

320. SEX AND GENDER 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Study of the relationship among culture, biology, and social expectations of male and female behavior. Traditional and non-traditional American gender roles viewed cross-culturally and historically.

330. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Theoretical background, methodological approaches, and analysis of the consequences of systems of stratification. Emphasis on issues of social class, class structure, and mobility in American society.

335. SOCIOLOGY OF WAR 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Selected aspects of the relationship between war, the state, and society from a historical and comparative perspective. Focus on the relationship between international warfare and national societies organized to wage war in the modern period, and the extent to which this relationship has changed over the last two centuries. Issues include nationalism, the state, resource mobilization, institutions and organizations of armed force, citizenship and social inclusion, the experience of combat, memory of war, and treatment of the enemy.

340. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Historical development of America’s juvenile justice system since its inception in 1902. The range of offenses committed by youth, including delinquency and status offenses; social and personal causes, effects, and interventions.

343. DRUGS AND CRIME 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101 and one additional SC course. Introduction to the relationship between drugs and crime; law enforcement techniques used to reduce drug abuse; prevention and treatment; and the arguments for and against drug legalization.

345. CORRECTIONS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Rationale of correctional procedures and types of penal institutions, policies, and practices in supervising convicted offenders.

353. LATINA/O TRANSNATIONAL EXPERIENCE 3 cr. Examination of social issues impacting Latina/o communities (Chicanas/os, Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Central Americans) within the U.S., abroad, and in this emerging transnational space. Topics include ethnic movements, immigration, identity construction, borderlands, labor, education, gender, and language policies.

355. COMPARATIVE ETHNIC RELATIONS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101.Overview of historical and contemporary dynamics of ethnic relations in the U.S. and selected regions and societies around the world. Fundamental concepts and dynamics in ethnic relations, the historical and contemporary experiences of major ethnic groups in the U. S., and instances of ethnic cooperation, conflict, and inequality in different parts of the world.

356. RESEARCH IN JAPANESE SOCIETY AND CULTURE 3 cr. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Guided field research in Japan involving observation and/or interviews. Includes study tour.

360. URBAN SOCIETY 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101.Growth of urbanization; patterns of ecology, social institutions, characteristic lifestyles, and current problems in the core city, suburbs, and the urbanized region.

365. CORPORATE CRIME 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101 and one additional SC course. Analysis of moral issues in business from the perspective of organizational deviance; case analyses of corporate and governmental deviance.

370. MEDICINE AND CULTURE 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101.Influence of culture on illness and medical care; ecological context of illness; practitioner-patient relations; mental illness; folk and alternative methods of healing; social and cultural construction of illness.

380. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENTS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Focus on how environmental movements have developed over time and in different contexts. Developments of the U.S. environmental movement from early pursuits for the conservation and preservation of nature to more recent struggles for environmental justice; also, global environmental movements, particularly those fighting for sustainability.

385. POVERTY, WELFARE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE IN THE U.S. 4 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, and one additional SC course. Critical examination of poverty and welfare reform: the underlying causes, consequences, and people who are affected. Highlight is an applied research project where students develop and conduct a program evaluation for a nonprofit agency serving the poor in inner-city Cleveland. Service learning component required.

388. FORENSIC SCIENCE IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE 3 cr. Prerequisite: completion of at least 9 hours in the minor (including SC 223). Focus on the basic concepts of evidence as applied in the criminal legal system. The application of legal constraints and definitions on evidence and trial process are discussed. Court decisions illustrate the use of forensic evidence in the legal process.

390. HEALTH AND HEALING IN EAST ASIA 3 cr. In-depth understanding of a system of medicine based on concepts of the human body very different from those of biomedicine. Explores the practice of traditional Chinese medicine in China, Japan, and the U. S.

393. CULTURE AND COMMUNITY IN NORTHERN IRELAND: DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT AND PEACE 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. Part of John Carroll University’s summer institute on Peace-building and Conflict Transformation. Examination of the historical and sociocultural dimensions of the conflict in Northern Ireland and the movement towards peace-building and community reconstruction since the Belfast Agreement of 1998. Most contact hours will be in Belfast, following a week-long orientation at John Carroll.

399. ADVANCED SPECIAL TOPICS 3 cr. Prerequisite: SC 101. In-depth focus on specialized areas and issues in sociology.

400. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, and one additional course in sociology. Overview of classic and current theories of society. Particular focus on Marx and critical theory, Weberian theory, Durkheim and Structuralism, Symbolic Interactionism and Micro-level theories, Postmodernism, and Critical Race and Feminist theory.

435. LAW, ETHICS, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101 and one additional SC course. Interrelationship between law and its system of implementation; legal processes and institutional framework; social factors affecting practice in the criminal justice system.

440. VIOLENCE AND SOCIETY 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101 and one additional SC class. Trends and patterns of violence in society, its causes and consequences. Special focus on the influence of social environment, the impact of personal relationships and violence prevention.

455. CULTURAL DIVERSITY TRAINING 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 245 or 255, and one additional course in the cultural diversity track. Principles underlying cultural diversity training and their application in programs in nonprofit, governmental, corporate, law enforcement, and educational settings.

460. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS 4 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, one additional SC course, and MT 122. Focus on the logic of, procedures for, and issues related to theory testing in social research. Hypothesis construction, concept operationalization, research design, data collection methodologies, instrument construction, and sampling techniques.

460L. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS COMPUTER LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: SC 460. A hands-on course that uses a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods to explore the social world. Topics include content analysis, field research, interviewing, survey research, and statistical analysis program SPSS.

475. INTERNSHIP AND SEMINAR 4 cr. Prerequisites: SC 285 or 385 or 435 or 440, senior standing, and permission of instructor; or completion of a minimum of 12 credit hours within the cultural diversity track, senior standing, and permission of instructor. Internship in a human service, health, social justice, correctional, legal, or research setting; seminar on related personal and career growth, and analysis of and reflection on internship experience with seminar members.

490. MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING 3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, and junior or senior standing; or graduate standing. Designed to promote a better understanding of counseling in contemporary America. Ethnicity/race relations, social-class effects, ageism, changing roles of women, sexual orientation, cultural mores, and their relevance to counselor-client relations.

Registration for SC 491, 492, and 493 requires a pre-approval process which involves an instructional plan reviewed by the instructor, department chair, and dean’s office.

491. INDEPENDENT STUDY 1 cr.

492. INDEPENDENT STUDY 2 cr.

493. INDEPENDENT STUDY 3 cr. Prerequisite: approval of project by instructor of course and chair of the department. Directed advanced research and/or supervised advanced readings. Students must report regularly to faculty advisor during the semester. Course available only if regular classroom instruction on the selected topic is unavailable, and/or course of study extends beyond a previously taken course.

494. INTERNSHIP AND SEMINAR IN FORENSIC SCIENCE 4 cr. Prerequisites: senior standing, completion of at least 18 hours of the minor (including SC 223 and either PS 370 or SC 388), and permission of instructor. Internship includes field placement in a law enforcement, criminal justice, legal, or research setting in which forensic work is currently conducted. Placement involves a weekly time commitment to the host site and some hands-on responsibilities. The course also includes a weekly seminar with on-going report, reflection, and analysis among fellow interns regarding their field experience. Cross-listed with PS 494.

497. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANT 1 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, and junior or senior standing; permission of instructor and chair of the department. Allows students to become more familiar with the research process through assisting faculty members in their research. Types of tasks may include but are not limited to assisting with literature reviews, subject recruitment, data collection, entering or coding data, and data analysis. Pass/Fail. May be repeated for a cumulative maximum of 3 credit hours.

499. ADVANCED SEMINAR 1-3 cr. Prerequisites: SC 101, two additional courses in sociology, and senior standing. In-depth analysis of selected sociological topics. Responsibility for this seminar rotates among faculty members.