Professors: D. W. Robson, M. P. Berg, A. Kugler, P. V. Murphy (Assistant to the President for University Mission and Identity); Associate Professors: J. H. Krukones (Associate Academic Vice President), R. W. Purdy, R. J. Kolesar, D. P. Kilbride (Chair), M. Marsilli; Assistant Professor: J. M. McAndrew

History explores the totality of human experience using methodologies drawn from the humanities and the social sciences. The historian uses original sources and the writings of other scholars to offer complex explanations for significant social, cultural, economic, and political developments. History helps students understand long-term transformations and appreciate the contexts of time and place. Students gain a deeper appreciation of their own and other cultures, preparing them to contribute meaningfully to the contemporary world and to understand problems rooted in cultural misunderstandings and political and economic inequities.

Major and Minor Requirements

Major in History:39 credit hours, at least 18 of which must be at the 300 and 400 level. At least 20 hours must be taken in residence. One 100-level course, HS 261, and HS 490 or 491 are required. At least two courses in each of the following areas must be taken: American; European; and Asian, African, or Latin American. In addition, students must include in their program two courses that concentrate on a period before 1800, and two that concentrate on post-1800 history. Elective courses in the major should be selected to focus on a region or a theme to be pursued in the Senior Seminar or Senior Thesis.For students working toward licensure in secondary education, careful and early planning in consultation with the Department of Education and the academic advisor is essential. These programs may entail work beyond the normal four years. Students in the Integrated Social Studies teaching licensure program must complete the following history courses as part of their curriculum content requirements: HS 201, 202, 211, 212, 261, 271, 490. Special area studies courses (at least one course from each category; three courses total): Global Studies: HS 119, 120, 151; Area Studies: HS 170, 180, 274, 280. Upper-division courses: Three 300 or 400-level electives that support a regional or thematic focus.

Minor in History: 18 hours. Six courses with a minimum of two at the 100 or 200 level and at least three 300-400 level courses. At least one course in two of the following areas: American; European; and Asian, African, or Latin American. Selection of the courses must be approved by the chair or a designated member of the department.

HP 291 (Justice and Democracy in a Global Context) also counts toward the major or the minor in history.

Through its Core curriculum course offerings, its major program, and other activities, the History Department fosters the skills, knowledge, and habits of mind that enable students to achieve success at John Carroll and in their later lives and careers. Specific course and program goals for students include:

  • Developing academic skills, including analytical reasoning, research techniques, and oral and written communication.
  • Integrating historical knowledge with that acquired through other liberal arts disciplines and experiential learning.
  • Gaining knowledge of human experience in varied regions and times, and as shaped by social characteristics such as race, gender, religion, nation, and class.
  • Providing an opportunity to engage in serious reflection on significant ethical issues and questions of social justice.
  • Cultivating within majors a competence in a particular theme, region, or time period sufficient to undertake a significant research and writing project, incorporating original sources and the work of other historians.

Any single course within the program may emphasize one or more of these goals. Students should start with one or more 100-level courses, which introduce students to the study of significant historical topics or themes through the use and interpretation of primary-source materials and historical arguments. Students should then proceed to traditional survey courses at the 200 level or advanced courses at the 300 or 400 level. Majors should take HS 261 (History as Art and Science) in the sophomore year and HS 490 (Senior Seminar) or 491 (Senior Thesis) in the senior year. Seniors are also required to take an exam on their general level of achievement in the major.

In consultation with their advisor, students majoring in history develop a thematic, regional, or chronologically-based concentration suiting their interests within the framework of a balanced program. Majors are urged to seek experiential learning opportunities that may involve internships through the department at a local historical society or course- or service-related travel components. Pertinent courses from other departments may be included in the major program upon the written approval of the student’s major advisor. Foreign language study beyond University Core requirements and/or statistics are recommended for students who plan to do graduate work in history.

Students who combine a history major with a second major or a minor or concentration complementing their interest—and with an experiential learning component or internship—put themselves in excellent positions to enter careers in law, business, secondary education, social service professions, nonprofit organizations, or graduate study in history. The department participates in the following interdisciplinary concentrations: Africana Studies, Catholic Studies, East Asian Studies, International Studies, Latin American Studies, Modern European Studies, and Perspectives on Sex and Gender (see pages 82-89). Program requirements and course descriptions for the Master of Arts in history are published in the Graduate Studies Bulletin.

Introduction to History Courses

110. THE SPANISH ARMADA 3 cr. Early modern European political and cultural world as seen through the lens of the clash between Spain and England in the later sixteenth century.

112. PROPHECY AND ORDER 3 cr. Introduction to the history of Christian religious communities through an examination of the contributions of ascetic and apostolic figures who have acted as prophetic critics and strong supporters of the Church and the social and political structures of the world in which they lived. Study of the “desert fathers” and “desert mothers,” Western monasticism, the mendicant movement of the high Middle Ages, apostolic groups in the modern world, religious communities of women, and contemporary examples of non-traditional intentional communities.

113. SAINTS AND SCOUNDRELS: THE JESUITS FROM RENAISSANCE TO REVOLUTION 3 cr. Spirituality, intellectual life, ministry, and political involvements of the Jesuits from their origins in the Renaissance to the present day as seen in a global and historical context.

114. REVOLUTIONARY EUROPE 3 cr. Transformation in European government, economy, society, and culture in the period of the French and Industrial Revolutions.

116. WORLD WAR I & MODERNITY 3 cr. Origins of World War I, with particular emphasis on social, political, economic, and strategic factors; the experience of modern industrial warfare in the trenches and in civilian society; the impact of technology on perceptions of warfare; radicalization of political sentiments among revolutionaries and supporters of continued conflict; the peace settlement and its legacy.

118. THE WORLD AND THE WEST 3 cr. Reviews the major non-Western civilizations from 1400-1800. Focus on empire-building mechanisms, cultural exchanges, and identity.

120. TWENTIETH-CENTURY GLOBAL HISTORY 3 cr. Introduction to the major themes of twentieth-century history that have shaped our contemporary world.

121. THE COLD WAR 3 cr. Developments between 1917 and 1991 in U.S.-European and broader international perspective. Circumstances at the end of World War II; alliance formation; the Korean War; censorship in East and West; Cold War influence on domestic political developments in NATO countries; official and dissident culture in Eastern Europe; the “Soviet” model in China, Cuba, and Vietnam; the role of the Middle East; arms race/arms control; collapse of Communist regimes and ramifications of post-Cold War arrangements.

125. HUMAN RIGHTS 3 cr. Survey of thinking on human rights from antiquity to the present, with special attention to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other post-1945 developments. Case studies may vary, but will generally include such key human rights concerns as slavery, humanitarian intervention, refugees and displaced persons, post-conflict reconstruction, human trafficking, torture, and the death penalty.

131. AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY 3 cr. Overview of black experience from its West Africa roots, through slavery and finally to freedom in modern America. Focus on leaders, movements, community, and race relations.

141. INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 3 cr. Primary source-based study of important ideas, thinkers, and cultural trends in the United States from the colonial through the modern period. Topics include religion, including Puritanism, revivalism, church-state tensions, and nativism; the Enlightenment; Romanticism; slavery and sectional tensions; republicanism; Darwin and evolution; pragmatism; communism and anti-communism; and America’s place in a wider intellectual world.

142. THE UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD 3 cr. Examines U.S. cultural and diplomatic relationships with the wider world from the colonial period through the present day. Topics include major traditions of U.S. foreign policy, the era through the contemporary period, and debates over the past and future status of the United States as an empire.

150. WOMEN IN UNITED STATES HISTORY 3 cr. Multicultural analysis of women in and out of the mainstream of American political, economic, social, and cultural history. Women in reform movements, in the labor force, and in the home.

151. THE ATLANTIC WORLD 3 cr. Economic, social, and demographic impact of the interactions between Native American, West African, and Western European cultures in the New World from 1450 to 1900. Topics include the slave trade, the development of the French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and British colonies, Indian-European relations, and the exchange of goods, cultures, peoples, and diseases.

152. THE OLD SOUTH 3 cr. Development of the slaveholding regions of the U.S. from the beginning of European contact through the end of the Civil War. Transplantation of European cultures in the New World, the evolution of a biracial society based on slavery, Southern distinctiveness, and the origins of the Civil War.

153. WORKING-CLASS AMERICA 3 cr. Introduction to U.S. labor history in 19th and 20th centuries; segmentation of labor by race, ethnicity, gender, and region; working-class culture, family, communities; workplace, unionization, role of government in labor relations.

154. THE WITCHES OF SALEM 3 cr. Possible causes of the Salem Village Witchcraft outbreak of 1692 through use of primary sources and conflicting secondary accounts; presentation of the episode to modern audiences through literature and film.

155. SPORTS IN AMERICAN SOCIETY 3 cr. History of sports in America seen both as product and shaper of the surrounding society and culture. Topics examined include relationships between sports and urbanization, economic development, race, and gender.

168. THE BORDER/LA FRONTERA 3 cr. Historical introduction to the U.S.-Mexico border region as both connected to and as distinct from Mexico and the U.S.; the historical presence and continuing migration of Mexicans into the U.S.; the border region’s historical, present, and potential impact on American identity and society.

170. INTRODUCTION TO LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE 3 cr. Surveys the main topics of Latin American history down to the present, emphasizing native peoples, gender roles, military dictatorships, and human rights.

180. CONTEMPORARY EAST ASIAN HISTORY 3 cr. Examines political, social, economic, cultural, and foreign relations of China, Japan, and Korea since 1945.

195-197. SPECIAL TOPICS 1-3 cr. Topics: 195: American; 196: European; 197: Asian, African, or Latin American. Specific title and number of credits announced in the semester course schedule. Directed readings or individual research by permission of chair.

Survey Courses

201, 202. WESTERN CIVILIZATION 3 cr. each. Major ideas, events, and individuals that have shaped European society from its antecedents in ancient times to the contemporary era. 201: earliest times to the sixteenth century; 202: sixteenth century to the present.

208. THE IRISH IN HISTORY 3 cr. Ireland’s pasts and impacts on goals of unity and independence; comparison with other European and non-European colonized peoples seeking national and cultural identity; beliefs on “national character” in fiction and film.

211, 212. HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 3 cr. each. Survey of U.S. political, economic, social, and cultural history. Emphasizes diversity of the nation’s people and how subjective categories—particularly race and ethnicity, class, and gender—have influenced historical behavior and historical analysis. 211: through the post-Civil War era; 212: from the end of Reconstruction to the present.

261. HISTORY AS ART AND SCIENCE 3 cr. Exploration of history as a way of knowing and communicating the past; historiography, research, and writing methodology; developing a historical perspective. Designed for prospective majors; does not offer Division II core credit.

271. WORLD GEOGRAPHY 3 cr. Thorough review of place geography; relationships between humans and the physical environment, including climate, soils, resources, and landforms. Analysis of regional areas. Does not offer Division II core credit.

273. COLONIAL LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY 3 cr. Colonial period in Latin America (to 1810). Focus on the impact of the European conquest over the native groups, the effects of conversion to Catholicism, and subsequent changes in gender roles.

274. MODERN LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY 3 cr. Main issues involved in the making of modern Latin America (1810 to present). Identity formation processes, military history, gender problems, and human rights topics.

279. PRE-MODERN EAST ASIAN HISTORY 3 cr. China, Japan, and Korea from their pre-historic origins to the mid-nineteenth century. The contribution of their cultural foundations and traditions to modernization and the impact of their historic development on contemporary events.

280. MODERN EAST ASIAN HISTORY 3 cr. Impact of imperialism, revolution, and war from the mid-nineteenth century to the present on East Asian modernization and globalization; focus on China, Japan, and Korea.

283. JAPANESE POPULAR CULTURE 3 cr. Focuses on the culture of ordinary Japanese—their interests, lifestyles, consumption, activities—rather than those of the elites. Covers from the 17th-century Tokugawa Era to present day.

295-297. SPECIAL TOPICS 0-3 cr. Topics: 295: American; 296: European; 297: Asian, African, or Latin American. Specific title and number of credits announced in the semester course schedule. Directed readings or individual research by permission of chair.

Advanced Courses

300. HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST (RL 300) 3 cr. History, culture, and religion of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syro-Palestine.

301. ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY (CL 301) 3 cr. Greek history from the Minoan period through the zenith of Athenian democracy, to the conquests of Alexander and eventual incorporation into the Roman empire. Special emphasis on Greek cultural achievements.

302. ROMAN HISTORY (CL 302) 3 cr. History of Rome from its humble beginning, through the Roman Republic, to the creation and collapse of the Roman empire. Attention paid to all aspects of Roman life, from family and social structure to political institutions.

310. WOMEN IN EUROPE SINCE 1500 3 cr. Examination of the legal, economic, domestic, and ideological status of women in the early modern period and the impact of the Reformation, Enlightenment, French and Industrial Revolutions, and world wars on women, as well as women’s contributions to these events.

321. NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 3 cr. Political, social, cultural, and economic developments in Western Europe, particularly industrialization, democratization, and imperialism from the end of the French Revolution to the eve of World War I.

326. TWENTIETH-CENTURY EUROPE 3 cr. Political, social, and economic developments from approximately 1900 to the post-9/11 era. Emphasis on the impact of the world wars, right and left radical regimes, the Cold War, and European attempts at unity and self-determination.

332. BERLIN: FROM REICH TO REPUBLIC 3 cr. German history and politics from 1918 to the present, employing Berlin as the focal point for significant developments. The interwar republic and the rise of the Nazis; the Third Reich; postwar occupation and Cold War division; political systems and society in East and West Germany; Berlin as capital of a reunified Germany in an increasingly integrated Europe. Culminates in a week-long study tour in Berlin during spring break.

333. HISTORY ON FILM 3 cr. Cinematic recreations of the past and methodologies of assessing them, especially as compared with written history; documentaries and dramatic features as historical sources that reflect their eras of origin.

336. THE HOLOCAUST 3 cr. Racism and anti-Semitism in modern Europe; Nazi propaganda and legal measures against German Jews in 1930s; transition from discrimination to Europe-wide genocide during Second World War; experiences of victims and perpetrators; postwar Holocaust denial; impact of the Holocaust on memory in Germany, the U.S., and elsewhere since 1945.

341. RACE AND SEX IN AMERICAN POPULAR CULTURE 3 cr. How nineteenth and twentieth-century American popular culture has reflected and contributed to the construction of racial identities, particularly in popular culture’s use and treatment of sexual themes.

342. IMMIGRANT AMERICA 3 cr. Immigration and ethnicity in nineteenth and twentieth-century America; emphasis on voluntary migrants. Topics include expectations and adaptations of particular ethnic groups, tensions between group identity and assimilation, and response of native-born Americans to immigrants and immigration.

343. SLAVERY AND ABOLITION 3 cr. Development of African slavery in the Western hemisphere in the early modern period. Themes include the African background, the European origins of chattel slavery, the development of racism, labor, resistance, community life, religion, and the abolition movement.

357. U.S. MILITARY HISTORY 3 cr. Overview of the development of the American armed forces and their role in society. The place of war in U.S. history; professionalization of the military; analysis of battlefield experience.

371. OUR UNRULY DAUGHTERS: WOMEN AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN EARLY MODERN SPAIN AND LATIN AMERICA 3 cr. Focus on the relationship between women and the Catholic Church in early modern Spain and colonial Latin America. Includes women who found an intellectual shelter in the Church, as well as those in trouble with the Inquisition because of religious deviance.

372. RACE AND GENDER IN LATIN AMERICA 3 cr. Considers the role of women (European, black, and Indian) and different ethnic groups (whites, Indians, and peoples of African descent) in the making of Latin American history. Special attention is paid to the socially-based construction of ethnicity.

381. JAPANESE HISTORY 3 cr. Development of Japanese culture, society, politics, and economics from prehistory to modern times.

382. CHINESE HISTORY 3 cr. Social, political, economic, and cultural development of China from earliest to modern times.

395-397. SPECIAL TOPICS 1-3 cr. Topics: 395: American; 396: European; 397: Asian, African, or Latin American. Specific title and number of credits announced in the semester course schedule. Directed readings or individual research by permission of chair.

405. ROME: CITY OF EMPERORS, POPES, AND SAINTS 3 cr. History and culture of the city of Rome from the classical and imperial age to the sixteenth century. Focus on the institutions and historical figures that have been prominent in the shaping of the city and its history. Highlighted by a one-week, on-site learning tour of Rome during spring break.

406. MEDIEVAL SOCIETY AND INSTITUTIONS 3 cr. Various forces at work in the development of the political, religious, and cultural institutions of the Middle Ages from 500 to 1500.

411. RENAISSANCE EUROPE 3 cr. Political, intellectual, and cultural developments in Renaissance Italy. The movement of Renaissance culture into Northern Europe, emphasizing the continuity and differences with the Italian Renaissance.

412. REFORMATION EUROPE 3 cr. Breakup of the unity of Christendom. Emphasis on the major Protestant reform movements (Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism) and the Catholic Reformation.

415. EARLY MODERN FRANCE 3 cr. Development of the French monarchy from Francis I to Louis XV; the effects of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment on French society.

416. EARLY MODERN ENGLAND 3 cr. Political, social, economic, religious, and cultural development of England from the War of the Roses through the Glorious Revolution.

417. FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 3 cr. Eighteenth-century society and culture; liberal and radical revolutions; impact on Europe and the world.

431. TOPICS IN COLONIAL AMERICAN HISTORY 3 cr. Social, political, religious, economic, and cultural development of England’s North American colonies from first settlement to mid‑eighteenth century.

432. AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY ERA 3 cr. The Revolution as a colonial war for independence and as a struggle for reform within America. Examines achievement of these goals as a new nation created.

433. TOPICS IN THE EARLY AMERICAN REPUBLIC, 1789‑1828 3 cr. Social, cultural, political, and economic development of the U.S. from the beginning of constitutional government to the election of Jackson.

436. ANTEBELLUM U.S. 3 cr. U.S. history from 1815 until 1861. Focus on social and cultural issues, including women’s lives, Indian cultures, economic developments, social reform movements, political culture, slavery and the South, and the origins of the Civil War.

437. EARLY AMERICAN CULTURE 3 cr. Intellectual and cultural history of the British mainland colonies and the U.S., 1600-1865. Topics include religious developments, regionalism, popular culture, and American-European cultural relations.

438. THE UNITED STATES, 1850-1877 3 cr. Social and political origins of the Civil War in the Old North and Old South, the secession crisis, military strategy, soldiers’ lives, leadership, the home front, women’s experiences, emancipation, and political and social reconstruction.

439. GILDED AGE AMERICA 3 cr. The United States from the 1870s through 1910s; major emphasis on business, labor, immigration, urban, and political history; progressive reform as a response to industrialization.

441. NEW DEAL AMERICA 3 cr. The United States from the 1920s through the 1940s; major emphasis on the social and political significance of the Great Depression and New Deal of the 1930s. Political realignments; national welfare, regulatory, and administrative policies; business and labor; rural America and agricultural policies; local impacts.

442. UNITED STATES SINCE 1945 3 cr. Significant events and trends of the post‑World War II period. Origins of the Cold War, McCarthyism, the civil rights and women’s movements, the Vietnam War, and recent developments in foreign and domestic policies.

447. UNITED STATES CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY 3 cr. Development of the American constitutional system and interaction with other strands of the nation’s history, including political, social, economic, and religious. Focus on decisions of the Supreme Court.

452. MODERN JAPANESE HISTORY 3 cr. Japan’s rise as a world power, from the late Tokugawa Era (nineteenth century) to its postwar comeback. (HS 381 suggested as preparation, but not required.)

453. MODERN CHINESE HISTORY 3 cr. Political, cultural, social, and economic changes in China from the arrival of Westerners through the post‑Mao era. (HS 382 suggested as preparation, but not required.)

456. RELATIONS OF THE PACIFIC RIM 3 cr. International, military, economic, and social relations among the cultures and nations of the Pacific Rim. Focus on the nations of the Northern and Western Pacific.

464. GENOCIDE AND WAR CRIMES 3 cr. Examines the period WW I to the present. Close study of the evolution of international understanding of genocide, crimes against humanity, and human rights violations through selected case studies. Focus on social, political, economic, and cultural factors in the perpetration of atrocities. Development of human-rights protections and adjudication; explores potential for reconciliation.

473. NAZI GERMANY: ORIGINS, STRUCTURES, CONSEQUENCES 3 cr. Turbulent German circumstances resulting from the Revolutions of 1918‑19, the rise of the Nazi Party, establishment of the Nazi state, and the politics of race and genocide. Examines ways that postwar historians have approached the rise of National Socialism and the controversy over the singularity of Nazi crimes against humanity.

474. GERMANY SINCE 1945: RECONSTRUCTION TO REUNIFICATION 3 cr. History of East and West Germany from the collapse of Nazism. Occupation, denazification, and reconstruction; integration into rival Cold War alliances. Social and economic security, political stability, and cultural criticism in the West; East Germany as the showcase of the Eastern Bloc under state socialism from the 1960s through the 1980s. Peaceful revolution in 1989, reunification, its social and economic costs, and the European response; reflections on the Nazi and Stalinist pasts.

476. IN THE NAME OF THE INCAS: FROM IMPERIAL SPLENDOR TO COLONIAL COLLAPSE AND MESSIANIC RETURNS 3 cr. Incas’ imperial splendor and subsequent collapse as a result of the Spanish conquest. The role of the Incas as a utopian model of social organization among the native peoples of the Andean region.

477. CHE GUEVARA: THE MAN, THE ICON, HIS TIMES 3 cr. Focus on the life and accomplishments of Ernesto “Che” Guevara in the context of Cold War U.S. and Latin American foreign relations, colonialism, and social justice ideals.

486. RUSSIA: KIEVAN, MUSCOVITE, IMPERIAL 3 cr. The major stages of pre-Soviet Russian history. Territorial expansion, creation of tsarist autocracy, socioeconomic development, and modernization, culminating in the Revolution of 1905.

488. RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION, 1900 TO THE PRESENT 3 cr. Russia’s turbulent history since 1900. Fall of tsarism, Bolshevik seizure of power and creation of the Soviet Union, Leninism and Stalinism, Second World War and Cold War, Gorbachev’s reforms, collapse of the USSR, and post‑Soviet developments.

490. SENIOR SEMINAR 3 cr. Prerequisites: HS 261 and five additional courses in the major. The culminating experience of the history major, requiring students to demonstrate historical skills through common readings, class discussion, and written assignments.

491. SENIOR THESIS 3 cr. Prerequisites: HS 261, five additional courses in the major, and permission of chair. Individual research project developed and written in consultation with appropriate department member. Typically restricted to students with a 3.5 GPA overall. Especially recommended for students pursuing graduate study in history.

495‑497. SPECIAL TOPICS 1‑3 cr. Topics: 495: American; 496: European; 497: Asian, African, or Latin American. Specific title and number of credits announced in the semester course schedule.

498. INTERNSHIP 1-6 cr. Prerequisites: 2.7 average in history courses and permission of chair; open to majors only. No more than 3 credits may be applied to the major. Supervised work, typically in museums, archives, public history sites or agencies, relevant to major sequence of study. Journal and reflective paper required in addition to work responsibilities. Internships must be planned in advance with supervising faculty member.

499. INDEPENDENT STUDY 1-3 cr. Prerequisite: permission of project advisor and department chair. Directed reading or individual research.