Professors: C. H. Wideman, J. R. Johansen; Associate Professors: J. L. Lissemore (Chair), C. D. Anthony, C. A. Sheil, M. P. Martin, R. E. Drenovsky; Assistant Professors: E. E. Johnson, R. A. Saporito

Major Programs

Biology encompasses the study of all organisms, and our curriculum provides students a solid foundation in: 1) cellular and molecular biology; 2) organismal biology; and 3) evolutionary biology, ecology, and biodiversity.

Through course work and mentored student research, the faculty emphasize the importance of evolution in biological phenomena, the role of the environment in biological interactions, and ethical behavior in scientific endeavors. These experiences: 1) promote strong critical thinking and analytical skills; 2) provide hands-on experience in biological techniques; and 3) stimulate creative scientific thought.

The academic programs in biology prepare students for graduate and professional school, as well as for careers in the public and private sectors. Mentoring through academic advising, research, and internships prepares our students for future scholarship in addition to social and civic involvement.

The Biology major is intended for students seeking careers that require a strong background in biology and chemistry, including health professions (such as medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician assistant, public health, and veterinary medicine), teaching, research, and other professions. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in biology and related disciplines such as organismal and evolutionary biology, ecology, developmental biology, physiology, and neuroscience.

The Environmental Science major is intended for students seeking careers in environmental and ecological fields, including environmental consulting, government, parks and recreation, teaching, research, environmental law, and other areas requiring strength in environmental science. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in ecology and environmental science.

The Cell and Molecular Biology major is intended for students seeking careers in medicine, biomedical research, biotechnology, pharmacy, healthcare, teaching, and other professions requiring a strong foundation in cellular and molecular processes. This major also prepares students for graduate programs in fields such as cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, pharmacology, and biochemistry.

All three majors require specific courses in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and other subjects. Students should be aware that some post-baccalaureate degree programs require physics for admission and should discuss course options with their advisors before making course decisions.

Major Declaration: Students must achieve a minimum GPA of 2.5 in BL 155-160 to be considered for formal acceptance into the Biology or Environmental Science majors, or a minimum GPA of 2.5 in BL 155-158 and BL 213 for formal acceptance into the Cell and Molecular Biology major.

Grade Policy for students in all biology majors:

  1. A grade of C- or higher must be earned in courses required for each major. A grade lower than C- requires that the course be repeated. In the case of an elective course for a major in which a grade below C- was earned, the student may petition to take an alternative course. (Effective with the Fall 2011 semester, this policy applies to all students in biology major courses, whether they have declared or not yet declared a biology major. Courses in which a grade lower than C- was earned prior to Fall 2011 do not have to be retaken.)
  2. A GPA of at least 2.0 must be earned in courses required for each major.
  3. A GPA of at least 2.0 must be earned in support courses required for each major. (This policy applies to first-year and transfer students matriculating to John Carroll University in Fall 2011 or later.)

Major and Minor Requirements

Note:Students may earn a degree in only one of the majors listed here. Double and triple majors in biology are not permitted. A maximum of 3 credits of BL 398 and BL 399 combined will be accepted for any of the biology majors.Comprehensive Examination:Students in all biology majors are required to pass the Major Field Test (MFT) in Biology within 12 months prior to their anticipated graduation date.Major in Biology: 34 credit hours of biology courses, including at least one 400-level course (excluding BL 405 and 478), plus 20-25 credit hours of supporting courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites. Students may count one of the following courses/course sequences for Biology major credit: CH 431, CH 435-436, PS 326, or PS 426. CH 431 and CH 435-436 will be accepted as four BL credits while PS 326 and PS 426 will be accepted as three BL credits.

Required Courses: BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160; plus at least one course from each of the following areas: A) molecule-to-cell: BL 213, 301, 310, 459, 465, or 470; B) cell-to-organism: BL 230 and 231, 254, 350, 360, 410, 420, 471, or 475; C) organism-to-biosphere: BL 206, 222, 224, 255, 331, 370, 406, 421, 424, 425, 426, 435, 440, 444, 447, or 454.

Required Support Courses: CH 141-144 (or 151H, 153), CH 221-224, MT 135, MT 228.

Minor in Biology: 21 credit hours of biology courses, including BL 155-160 and three 200-400 level courses (including at least one laboratory course).

Strongly Recommended: CH 141-144, 221-224

Major in Environmental Science: 35-38 credit hours of biology courses, plus 23-28 credit hours of required support courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites.

Required Courses: BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 222, 224 or 435, 331, 424 or 447, 444; plus two courses from: BL 206, 224, 255, 399 (3 cr.), 406, 421, 424, 425, 426, 435, 447, 454.

Required Support Courses: CH 141-144 (or 151H, 153); MT 135, 228, PH 101, 101L, 102, 102L or PH 115, 115L, 206; plus one course from: PO 361, 363, SC 290, 380.

Strongly Recommended: CH 221-224

Major in Cell and Molecular Biology: 35-37 credit hours of biology and biochemistry courses, plus 28-33 credits of required support courses in other departments. Courses are to be chosen with advisor approval and always include applicable laboratory corequisites.

Required Courses: BL 155, 156, 157, 158, 213, 215 or 470, 301 or 459, 465; CH 435-437; plus two courses from: BL 159 and 160, 301, 310, 399 (3 cr.), 410, 459, 470, 471, 475.

Required Support Courses: CH 141-144, (or 151H, 153), CH 221-224; MT 135, MT 228, PH 125-126.

BL 155-160 is the normal introductory sequence for biology and environmental science majors. If, for a reason acceptable to the department, BL 157, 158, and 160 are taken separately from BL 155, 156, and 159, the student is expected to take BL 155, 156, and 159 or their equivalents before taking the laboratory courses. Entering freshmen will receive advanced placement and/or advanced standing in accord with scores listed on pages 24-25.

Pre-Health Professions

Students planning to apply to medical or dental school are strongly advised to take genetics, biochemistry, statistics, calculus, and physics to prepare for these highly competitive programs. Medical and dental schools require a year of physics for admission. Requirements for other health professional programs can vary substantially so students must check the websites of specific programs and schools to be informed of their requirements.

Pre-health professions students are strongly urged to contact the director of the Pre-Health Professions Program at John Carroll for more information and for assistance in planning their educational programs and applications to professional schools. Students are also advised to consult current publications and websites relevant to their proposed area of study and preferred colleges, including Medical School Admission Requirements of U.S. and Canada, Admission Requirements of U.S. and Canadian Dental Schools, and similar publications for specific professions, such as osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, veterinary medicine, physician assistant programs, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, anesthesiology assistant, public health, and optometry.

For additional information, please see pages 96-98 in the Graduate and Professional Study section of this Bulletin and the Pre-Health Professions website (www.jcu.edu/prehealth).

Pre-Veterinary Students

A minimum of 80 hours of work with a veterinarian is required by Ohio State University and most schools of veterinary medicine. Pre-vet students should contact the Pre-Health Professions director during their freshman year for assistance in planning and for information about specific requirements and application procedures.

Case Western Reserve University Graduate Entry Nursing Program

Biology majors interested in nursing as a career may choose to enter a cooperative program in pre-nursing/nursing and earn the Bachelor of Science degree from John Carroll University and the Master of Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, or Doctor of Nursing Practice degrees from the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. Students in this program normally attend John Carroll for three academic years and complete all University core requirements: CH 141-144, CH 241-244, MT 135, MT 228, BL 155-160, BL 213, BL 230-231, BL 310, and an organism-to-biosphere course. Three upper-level electives in the first year at Case Western Reserve University complete the major requirements: NUND 402, NUND 405, and NUND 408. After successful completion of one year of the Graduate Entry Program at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, the student will be awarded the Bachelor of Science degree with a Biology major by John Carroll University. To be eligible for this program, students must complete at least 60 credit hours at John Carroll, apply in writing to the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences by the end of the first semester of the junior year, and be accepted by the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing in the usual manner. Students planning to follow this course of study should contact the director of the Pre-Health Professions Program during the first semester of their sophomore year.

Ursuline College Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.) Program

Ursuline College and John Carroll University have an agreement whereby at least two seats per year in the Breen College of Nursing at Ursuline College’s Accelerated B.S.N. Program are designated for John Carroll University graduates. Students may apply to Ursuline College’s Admissions Office (through the coordinator of B.S.N. Enrollment) as early as the beginning of their junior year at John Carroll.

Prior to beginning nursing courses, applicants must complete the following courses with a GPA of at least 3.0: BL 155-158, 213, 230, 230L, 231, 231L, 310, 310L; CH 141-144, 221, 223; MT 122 (or MT 135 and 228); PL 316; PS 101, 175; SC 101; Nutrition (offered at other Cleveland-area institutions such as Tri-C). In addition, applicants must have a GPA of at least 3.0 in mathematics and science courses and must be in good standing at John Carroll. Applicants for the two allotted seats will be considered in the order in which applications are received. When the designated seats are filled, other applicants will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Admission is not guaranteed, and acceptance into the program is at the sole discretion of Ursuline College. For more information, contact the John Carroll Pre-Health Profession director or visit the website for the Breen College of Nursing at Ursuline College (http://www.ursuline.edu/Academics/Nursing/).

Biology Minor and Interdisciplinary Concentrations

An optional minor in biology is available to students majoring in any subject outside of biology.

Biology majors may elect interdisciplinary concentrations or minors in areas such as neuroscience, environmental studies, or population and public health. It is strongly recommended that students interested in these programs investigate them as early as possible in their academic careers. Interested students should refer to the section on “Interdisciplinary Minors and Concentrations” in this Bulletin (pages 82-89) for more information.

Teacher Licensure

Students planning on obtaining licensure to teach Adolescent/Young Adult (AYA) Life Science at the secondary school level should consider taking ED 100 as soon as possible and should contact the Department of Education and Allied Studies by the end of their freshman year for guidance on requirements.

Additional Information

To receive a Bachelor of Science degree in biology, transfer students must complete a minimum of 17 credit hours in the department.

Many courses offered by the Biology Department include a laboratory and/or field-work component; these are listed as separate entries that immediately follow the entry for the corresponding lecture component of the course.

Graduate Studies in Biology

The department offers a program of studies leading to the degree of Master of Science or Master of Arts. Degree requirements are specified and courses described in the Graduate Studies Bulletin and on the biology department website (www.jcu.edu/biology).

Biology majors planning to continue studies leading to master’s or doctoral studies are strongly urged to consult publications and websites relevant to the proposed area of biological study, including Peterson’s Guide to Graduate Study, Graduate Programs and Admissions Manual of the Graduate Record Examination Board, and websites of schools to which admission will be sought. Students should also consult their biology advisor for undergraduate program recommendations. In addition, they can seek assistance from the department chair and the departmental coordinator of graduate studies.

101. SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY 3 cr. For non-science majors. Offered on an irregular basis and based on a topic chosen by the instructor. Used primarily for designation of courses transferred in from other universities.

102. SPECIAL TOPICS LECTURE IN BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 102L. For non-science majors. Offered on an irregular basis and based on a topic chosen by the instructor. Used primarily for designation of courses transferred from other universities.

102L. SPECIAL TOPICS LABORATORY IN BIOLOGY. 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 102. Two hours of laboratory per week.

103. PLANT SCIENCE 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 103L. For non-science majors. Three hours of lecture per week. Structure and function in unicellular and multicellular plants; general principles of plant science.

103L. PLANT SCIENCE LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 103. Two hours of laboratory per week.

109. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 109L. For non-science majors. Three hours of lecture per week. Relationship between human activity and the natural environment; food production, water supplies, air and water pollution, nuclear and non-nuclear energy, hazardous and toxic materials in the environment, climate change and world population growth. Economic implications of, and possible solutions to, these problems.

109L. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 109. Two hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory and field experiences intended to explore the scientific basis of environmental issues of the past, present, and future. Emphasizes a general understanding of the impact of human activity on the world and strategies for managing human activity for the good of the human population and the planet.

111. FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 111L. For non-science majors. Three hours of lecture per week. Characteristics of natural communities, their structure, distribution, and behavior. Interrelationships of organisms, including humans, within natural ecosystems.

111L. FUNDAMENTALS OF ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 111. Two hours of laboratory per week. Emphasis on biomes and environmental adaptation, scientific method, and collection of data by observation.

112. HUMAN BIOLOGY 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 112L. For non-science majors. Three hours of lecture per week. Basic human anatomy, physiology, and reproduction

112L. HUMAN BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 112. Two hours of laboratory per week. Basic human anatomy, physiology, and reproduction using models, hands-on experimental techniques, and computer-based techniques.

115. HUMAN GENETICS AND RACE 4 cr. Corequisite: BL 115L. For non-science majors. Three hours of lecture per week. Basic principles of genetics, both at the transmission and molecular levels. Introduction to principles of cell division, inheritance, and human pedigree analysis. DNA structure, chromosomal organization, gene structure, gene expression, genetic variation, population genetics, and race.

115L. HUMAN GENETICS AND RACE LAB 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 115. Two hours of laboratory per week. Basic principles of scientific method, basic principles of inheritance, molecular genetics, and biotechnology. Field trips and other activities when appropriate to the topic.

155, 156, 159. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I-II-III 3 cr. each. For science majors. 155 is prerequisite to 156 and 159. Three hours of lecture per week. 155: basic chemical principles; cell structure, and organization; metabolism of plants and animals. 156: plant and animal anatomy and physiology. 159: biodiversity and evolutionary relationships among living organisms.

157, 158, 160. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY I-II-III 1 cr. each. Corequisites: BL 155, 156, and 159. Three hours of laboratory per week. 157: laboratory study of the scientific method as applied to biology; cell division; development; functions of cell membranes and enzymes; reactions and products of photosynthesis. 158: laboratory study of plant and animal anatomy and physiology. 160: evolutionary relationships among bacteria, algae, protists, fungi, and multicellular plants and animals.

206. TROPICAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Corequisite: BL 206L. For students participating in John Carroll’s Costa Rica Study Abroad Program. Intensive lecture/laboratory/field course in Costa Rica examining tropical biology and emphasizing ecology, evolution, conservation, and sustainable agriculture.

206L. TROPICAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 206. For students participating in John Carroll’s Costa Rica Study Abroad Program.

213. GENETICS 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158. Four hours of lecture per week. Principles of molecular, transmission, quantitative, evolutionary, and population genetics; social and ethical implications of genetics.

215. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 213 or a grade of at least B in both BL 155 and BL 157, plus instructor permission; corequisite: BL 215L. May not be taken concurrently with BL/CH 470, and no credit will be given if BL/CH 470 has been completed. One hour of lecture per week. Introduction to basic techniques of DNA analysis, including restriction digests, DNA cloning, plasmid and genomic DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences.

215L. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 215. Four hours of laboratory per week.

222. GENERAL ECOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160 or permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture per week. Interactions between plants, animals, and the physical environment. Population ecology, community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, and biomes.

224. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite or corequisite: BL 222, MT 228, BL 224L. One hour of lecture per week. Ecological data collection and analysis. Students study model organisms to examine various aspects of terrestrial ecology, including animal behavior, food web dynamics, competition, and population dynamics.

224L. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 224. Four hours of laboratory per week.

230-231. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I-II 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155, 156, 157, 158; corequisites: BL 230L, 231L. BL 230 is prerequisite to BL 231. Three hours of lecture per week. Integrated discussion of human anatomy and physiology. Note: Completion of only BL 230 and 230L means the single semester will not count toward the BL major or BL minor. This class is intended for students planning to enter health professions such as nursing, physical therapy, physician assistant, and occupational therapy. It is not intended for students planning to go to medical school or graduate school.

230L-231L. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY I-II 0 cr. Three hours of laboratory per week.

240. EPIDEMIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 155-158 or grade of B or higher in BL 112-112L; grade of C or higher in MT 122, MT 228, MT 229, or EC 208. Three hours of lecture per week. Basic epidemiological principles, concepts, and methods used in the surveillance and investigation of global and domestic health-related events; discussion of historical and current examples from epidemiologic studies; emphasis on populations living in resource-limited settings.

254. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-156, 213; corequisite: BL 254L. Three hours of lecture per week. Molecular, genetic, and cellular mechanisms of development. Emphasis on invertebrates and vertebrates.

254L. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 254. Three hours of laboratory per week.

255. LOCAL SUMMER FLORA 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160 or permission of chair. Taxonomy of the local vascular plant flora of Northeast Ohio. Plants of forests, wetlands, coastal areas, roadsides, and urban landscapes. Lectures and identification will be conducted in the field, with some laboratory instruction and lectures on campus.

260. POVERTY AND DISEASE 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158. Three hours of lecture per week. Global and U.S. poverty; public health; epidemiology; U.S. health disparities, e.g., diabetes, obesity, HIV/AIDS; global health disparities, e.g., HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria; evolutionary factors in chronic and infectious disease; ethical issues in public health.

301. INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-156, 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Structure and function of plant and animal cells and their organelles. Emphasis on modern cell biology techniques.

310. MICROBIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213; corequisite: BL 310L. Two hours of lecture per week. Structure, physiology, and genetics of bacteria; ecological and medical importance emphasized. Some discussion of viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms.

310L. MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 310. Four hours of laboratory per week.

331. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160, or instructor permission for non-biology students in the Environmental Studies concentration. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Historical overview of climate change; global water and carbon cycles; effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and radiative forcing mechanisms on climate processes and feedbacks; effects of rapid climate change on selected ecosystems; human influences on climate; likely future changes.

350. VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 5 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 350L. Three hours of lecture per week. Anatomy, development, evolution, and phylogeny of vertebrates.

350L. VERTEBRATE ANATOMY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 350. Six hours of laboratory per week.

360. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158; corequisite: BL 360L. Three hours of lecture per week. Muscle physiology, circulation, respiration, excretion, and digestion in mammals as well as the neuronal and hormonal mechanisms regulating these processes.

360L. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 360. Three hours of laboratory per week.

370. EVOLUTION 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160, 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Introduction to modern evolutionary biology, including evolutionary processes and speciation, character evolution, and macroevolution.

398. DIRECTED READINGS IN BIOLOGY 1-3 cr. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Directed readings in a specific area of biology. A maximum of 3 credits of BL 398 and BL 399 combined will be accepted for any of the biology majors.

399. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN BIOLOGY 1-3 cr. Prerequisites: junior status, 3.0 GPA in a biology major, and permission of instructor. Laboratory or field research in a specific area of biology under faculty supervision. A maximum of 3 credits of BL 398 and BL 399 combined will be accepted for any of the biology majors.

405. SCIENTIFIC ILLUSTRATION 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL159/160 and permission of instructor. Experience in art not required. Developing skills of observation in biological sciences and learning how to produce publication-quality illustrations of measured accuracy, conceptualized drawings, and diagrammatic images for dissemination of research results. Development of a concise but comprehensive portfolio showcasing various techniques and graphic styles. An additional fee is required for personal illustration materials. This course does not fulfill the 400-level biology course requirement for biology majors.

406. TROPICAL FIELD BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites; BL 155-160 and permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture per week; spring break field trip to Central or South America required. Introduction to flora and fauna of the New World Tropics and to tropical field and laboratory work. Group research project required. Program fee required.

410. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Bacterial and viral pathogens of humans and those aspects of the immune response important in resistance and immunity to infectious diseases.

415. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160, BL 350 or 370, and permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture per week. Identification, naming, description, classification, and organization of extant and extinct biological diversity. Philosophy and practice of methods of reconstructing evolutionary history.

420. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160. Three hours of lecture per week. Detailed study of photosynthesis, water relations, mineral nutrition, and stress responses in plants with emphasis on current research techniques.

421. HERPETOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 421L. Three hours of lecture per week. Intensive study of amphibians and reptiles, with special emphasis on classification, ecology, and evolution of North American species.

421L. Herpetology Laboratory 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 421. Three hours of laboratory per week. Some Saturday and weekend field trips required.

424. AQUATIC RESOURCES 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 424L. Three hours of lecture per week. Study of aquatic organisms and their environment. Study of algae, insects, and fish as biological indicators of water and habitat quality in stream, lake, and wetland ecosystems. Impacts of water pollution, acidification, and other anthropogenic disturbance on aquatic systems.

424L. AQUATIC RESOURCES LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 424L. Four hours of laboratory per week. Saturday laboratory with field trips and analysis of aquatic life.

425. ICHTHYOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 425L. Three hours of lecture per week. Evolution, zoogeography, taxonomy, behavior, and ecology of North American fishes.

425L. ICHTHYOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 425. Four hours of laboratory per week. Some weekend field trips required.

426. BIOLOGY OF THE REPTILLIA 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite BL 426L. Three hours of lecture per week. Classification evolution, and ecology of extant and fossil reptiles, excluding birds.

426L. BIOLOGY OF THE RETILLIA LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 426. Three hours of laboratory per week. Some weekend field trips required. Optional week-long field trip at end of the semester; requires an additional program fee.

430. MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; corequisite: BL 430L. Two hours of lecture per week. Parasitic forms of medical importance. Emphasis on their biology, clinical presentation, the ecology of the disease, and epidemiology. Includes morphology, physiology, and diagnosis.

430L. MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 430. Four hours of laboratory per week. Diagnostic aspects of parasites; pathological changes in tissues.

435. PLANT ECOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160; BL 222 recommended. Three hours of lecture per week. Study of the distribution and abundance of plants from organismal, population, and community perspectives. Emphasizes both seminal and novel research.

435L. PLANT ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 435. Four hours of laboratory per week.

440. BEHAVIOR 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Evolutionary approach to animal behavior with emphasis on recent research.

444. ADVANCED ECOLOGY 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 222, MT 228; corequisite: BL 444L. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Topics include predator‑prey interactions, global change, niche theory, competition, null models, and community assembly rules.

444L. ADVANCED ECOLOGY LABORATORY 0 cr. Corequisite: BL 444. Three hours of laboratory per week. Students work in teams on a project of their own choosing. Includes experimental design, data analysis, write‑up, and presentation.

447. ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS 4 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160; corequisite: BL 447L. Two hours of lecture per week. Theory and practice of using algae as bioindicators of water quality in streams and lakes. Taxonomy of indicator groups will be covered.

447L. ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS LABORATORY 0 cr. Prerequisites: BL 159, 160; corequisite: BL 447L. Four hours of laboratory per week. Some weekend field trips required. Emphasis is on diatoms, but cyanobacteria, green algae, euglenoids, and other indicator taxa will also be examined. Research projects required.

454. DESERT BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-160, 222. Three hours of lecture per week; optional field trip to western U.S. at end of semester (see BL 454L). Introduction to abiotic and biotic factors influencing desert ecosystems. Group literature review project required.

454L. DESERT FIELD BIOLOGY 1 cr. Prerequisite: permission of instructor;corequisite: BL 454. Weeklong field trip to deserts of the Western U.S. Program fee required.

459. MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Cell signaling, regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle, cancer, and protein trafficking. Emphasis on current primary literature. Presentation of a seminar is required.

465. MOLECULAR GENETICS 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 213, CH 431 or 435. Three hours of lecture per week. Gene and genome analysis; genome organization; transposable elements; chromosome structure; replication, and expression of genetic information in bacteria and eukaryotes. Emphasis on current primary literature.

470. MOLECULAR METHODS LABORATORY 3 cr. Prerequisites: CH 431 or 435, CH 437; permission of instructor. Prerequisite/corequisite: BL 465 or 565. Eight hours of laboratory per week. Methods used in analysis of proteins and nucleic acids.

471. IMMUNOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisite: BL 213. Three hours of lecture per week. Concepts of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with emphasis on the cellular basis of the immune response. Experimental evidence emphasized.

475. ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158. Three hours of lecture per week. The endocrine glands, hormones, and their mechanisms of action in mammals.

478. BIOLOGY SEMINAR 1 cr. Prerequisites: BL 155-158. One hour of lecture per week. Current topics presented by invited guests, faculty, and students.

479. SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY 1‑4 cr. Prerequisites: vary by topic. Offered on an irregular basis; topics chosen by instructor. A lecture/discussion course; may include laboratories or field trips. For directed readings, see BL 398; for student research, see BL 399.